It is important that ideas anD．suggestions tableD．at formal meetings are voiceD．at the (0)..D..．time．This is achieveD．by keeping to the (19).....． shown on the agenda．For example, there is no (20).....． in discussing ideas to do with Item Six on the agendA．when Item Two has not yet been (21).....． Such deviations from the agendA．may (22)......． in confusion among the people at the meeting; they may also (23).....． concentration if they see something as irrelevant.
To make certain that the meeting proceeds in an orderly fashion, it is therefore useful to(24) .....．some grounD．rules．First, everyone will neeD．to understanD．that they must(25) .....．their comments to the topiC．under discussion．The Chair can then encourage one person to speak at A．(26) .....．so that any ideas offereD．can be discusseD．anD．(27)Once that person has finished, someone else can put (28)....． their ideas anD．so on．If this procedure is adopted, the participants will be able to follow the various issues in A．consistent manner, which will help with the decision-making (29)....． later on．It will also (30).....that the quiet people at meetings get A．chance to (31)....． their say, rather than just their more outspoken colleagues．In (32).....． it is often the quiet people at meetings who generate the best ideas, because they are in the (33).....． of thinking before they speak.
King was nominated for the quality of his leadership, with the judges claiming that the Fentons Finance boss is almost revered by his team. He is credited with reinventing Fentons Finance - revitalizing its culture of inflexibility, removing outdated pre-merger barriers and playing a brilliant tactical game. He led everyone to believe he was opposed to large mergers and then jumped on the Westcombe Bank opportunity at just the right moment. History will be the judge, but for now the markets consider King to be a star.
B. Keith Nash: Chief Executive of Hamley's Supermarkets
Nash took over as CEO when Hamley's systems and distribution were out of date and the brand badly needed freshening up. He began refocusing the brand at the higher quality end of the food market and launched several own-brand initiatives for the health conscious. As a result, the share price has gone up nearly 80 per cent. This should be extremely satisfying for Nash, who had left the retailer in 1986, disappointed after failing to secure the top job.
C. Jorge Marquez: Chairman of the Kenwick Group
Marquez was a popular choice for his achievements at Kenwick. The judges say he has been courageous in pushing through the appointment of controversial or inexperienced chief executives to companies within the group, and then sponsoring them as they transformed their businesses. He operates as a "virtual" chairman, without a permanent office in any one company. He phones his CEOs regularly, and several of them have acknowledged the vital contribution he makes to their effectiveness. Everyone is impressed at how he also finds the time to be chairman of two other large companies.
D. Richard Jenkins: Finance Director of Centron Advertising
Labouring in the shadow of a high-profile boss can sometimes draw attention away from the finance director, and the judges considered it was high time Jenkins got that attention. The CEO may be the public face of Centron, but Jenkins is the one who makes it run smoothly. Behind the scenes, he is constantly demonstrating that budgets and forecasts are what is needed to make a company successful, particularly now that the advertising market has been hit by recession, it is largely thanks to him that Centron is in much better shape than its rivals.
This businessman has successfully targeted a different group of consumers.
00 0f people．The purpose of research can vary from discovering the popularity of a political
34 party to assessing whether is a product needs changing or replacing．Most work in
35 consumer research involves interviewers employed by market research agencies，but
36 certain industrial and social research is carried out by any specialist agencies．Interviews
37 may be with individuals or groups and can last anything as from a few minutes to an hour
38 0r more．In some interviews，people may be asked to examine or try out products before
39 giving up their opinion．Successful interviewers tend to like meeting people and should
40 not only be shy of addressing strangers．Interviewers are usually expecled to work
41 unsupervised，organizing their own workload．Self-discipline is absolutely essential，and
42 as are motivation and enemy．There are no specific age limits for such a work，though
43 many agencies prefer to employ older applicants with experience of meeting people。
44 Market research agencies which frequently organize training，where trainees learn how
45 to recognize socio-economic groups and practice approaching to the public。
4、Questions 8 - 12
·Read this advertisement about business book reviews.
·Choose the best sentence from the opposite page to fill each of the gaps.
·For each gap 8 - 12, mark one letter A - I on your Answer Sheet.
·Do not mark any letter twice.
A) These introductory texts are the most important books and using them can pay big dividends.
B) Discover practical tips and techniques you can apply without delay.
C) In order to avoid this problem, we select for you only the truly worthwhile titles and reject the rest.
D) According to studies published in psychology journals, you retain the content of a summary better than a book.
E) He or she would take the most important ideas from each one, and compile them into a neat executive summary.
F) With the breadth and depth of knowledge gained from books, it is less likely that you'll be caught off guard.
G) Each contains all the key points in the original book, but instead of 200 to 500 pages there are only eight pages.
H) There's a sample of the superb business titles that we summarise for you.
I) With all the reading you have to do in the normal course of your work, you find it impossible to keep up with all the new business books.
Questions 8 – 12
·Read the following text.
·Choose the best sentence from the list on page 36 to fill each of the gaps.
·For each gap 8 – 12 mark one letter A – I on your Answer Sheet.
·Do not mark any letter twice.
In the past, the concept of marketing emphasised sales. The producer or manufacturer made a product he wanted to sell. ____ example ____ . Basically, selling the product would be accomplished by sales promotion, which included advertising and personal selling ____ (8) ____ Distribution consisted of transportation, storage, and related services such as financing, standardisation and grading, and the related risks.
The modern marketing concept encompasses all of the activities mentioned, but it is based on a different set of principles ____ (9) ____ In other words, goods should be produced only if they can be sold. Therefore, the producer should consider who is going to buy the product ------ or what the market for the product is ---- before production begins.
Marketing now involves first deciding what the customer wants, and designing and producing a product that satisfies these wants at a profit to the company ____(11)____ This is much more difficult since it involves human behaviour. ____(12)____ Thus, demand and market forces are still an important aspect of modern marketing, but they are considered prior to the production process.
A. It subscribes to the notion that production can be economically justified only by consumption.
B. Marketing was the task of figuring out how to sell the product.
C. Marketing is as important in today’s economy as the production of goods and services.
D. Production, on the other hand, is mostly an engineering problem.
E. Such markets must be created and stimulated by managers.
F. This is very different from making a product and then thinking about how to sell it.
G. More than half the cost of consumer goods can be traced to marketing activities.
H. In addition to sales promotion, marketing also involved the physical distribution of the product to the places where it was actually sold.
I. Instead of concentrating solely on production, the company must consider the desires of the consumer.
·Read this text on Dave’s dream.
·Choose the best sentence from the Opposite page 68 to fill each of the gaps.
·For each gap 8-12, mark one letter A - I on your Answer Sheet.
·Do not mark any letter twice.
Icon Acoustics: Bypassing Tradition
Like most entrepreneurs, Dave Fokos dreams a lot. He imagines customers eagerly phoning Icon Acoustics in Billerica, Massachusetts, to order his latest, custom-made stereo peakers ____example____
Like most entrepreneurs, Dave has taken a long time to develop his dream. ____(8)____ Dave discovered that he had a strong interest in studio engineering, He took independent-study courses in this area and by graduation had designed and built a pair of marketable stereo speakers. Following graduation, Dave pursued his interest in audio engineering. He landed a job as a loudspeaker designer with Conrad-Johnson, a high-end audio-equipment manufacturer headquarters in Fairfax, Virginia ____(9)____
Dave identified a market niche that he felt other speaker firms had overlooked ____(10)____These affluent, well-educated customers are genuinely obsessed with their stereo equipment. ‘They’d rather buy a new set of speakers than eat,’ Dave observes.
Dave faced one major problem---how to distribute Icon’s products. He had learned from experience at Conrad-Johnson that most manufacturers distribute their equipment primarily through stereo dealers. Dave did not hold a high opinion of most such dealers; he felt that they too often played hardball with manufacturers, forcing them to accept thin margins. ____(11)____This kept those firms that offered more customized products from gaining access to the market. Perhaps most disturbing, Dave felt that the established dealers often sold not what was best for customers, but whatever they had in inventory that month.
Dave dreamed of offering high-end stereo loudspeakers directly to the audio-obsessed, bypassing the established dealer network. ____(12)____ “My vision for the future is one where all manufacturers sell their products directly to end user. In this way, even the audiophiles in Dead Horse, Alaska, can have access to all that the audio-manufacturing community has to offer.”
A. At the age of 28, Dave set out to turn his dreams into reality.
B. Furthermore, the dealers concentrated on only a handful of well-known producers
C. Who provided mass-produced models.
D. The firms tend to plow their money in to developing their products and have little left over to market them.
E. Within four years, Dave had designed 13 speaker models and decided to start his own company.
F. To serve the audio-addicts segment, Dave offers only the highest-quality speakers.
G. It all began while majoring in electrical engineering at Cornell.
By going directly to the customers, Dave could avoid the dealer markups and offer top-quality products and service at reasonable price.
H. This niche consisted of “audio-addicts”----people who love to listen to music and appreciate first-rate stereo equipment.
I. He sees sales climbing , cash flowing, and hundreds of happy workers
Striving to produce top-quality products that delight Icon’s customers.
· Read this letter to the editor of The Economist.
· Choose the best sentence from the list A-I to fill each of the blanks.
· For each bland (8-12) mark one letter (A-I) on your Answer Sheet.
· Do not mar4 any letter twice.
· One answer has been given as an example.
You state on February 13 th that New Mexico has “few natural resources”, ____ example____ In 1991 New Mexico ranked fourth in the United States in production of natural gas, seventh in oil and tenth in non-fuel minerals ____8____ Non-fuel minerals contributed about $ 1 billion and coal $ 509 million.
Taxes from production of fuels and minerals, and lease payments on state lands have been set aside by legislative acts to endow two permanent funds worth about $ 5.65 billion, ____9____ In addition, during fiscal year 1991 , payments to New Mexico from taxes on federal lands were S 108 million, all earmarked for public education.
____10____ About $566 million came from taxes and permanent-fund earnings attributable to oil and gas production. ____11____ Tourism is an important industry in Mew Mexico, yet its economic impact on the public sector is dwarfed by that of mineral production.
New Mexico came through the recent recession in much better shape than most other states. It does not have a deficit. ____12____ States that rely primarily on a sales tax or on an income tax have big problems during economic downturns. Income growth per head in New Mexico averaged 6.1/00 in the year to October 1992-one if the fastest growth rates in the United States.
A. That it has a broadly based tax structure is an important point.
B. In 1992 it produced more oil than Colorado and Kansas combined.
C. However, the extractive mineral industry in New Mexico is one of the state’s strongest economic forces.
D. During fiscal year 1992 New Mexico raised permanent funds worth about $6.1 billion.
E. The combined value of oil and gas production was $ 2.8 billion.
F. Some 16,000 employees work in the extractive industries and their wages are among the highest of any major industry.
G. The $39 million earned by these funds in 1991 was used to finance education and other public services.
H. Only S 25 million came from agricultural taxes.
I. New Mexico’s extractive mineral industries contribute about a third of the state’s $ 1.9 billion general-fund income in fiscal year 1991.
·Read this text about electrical power in Canada.
·Choose the best sentence from the list A-I to fill each of the blanks.
·For each blank (8 - 12) mark one letter (A - I) on your Answer Sheet.
·De not mark any letter twice.
·One answer has been given as an example.
ELECTRICITY: WEALTH, MONEY, POWER
Canadian industries have prospered for more than a century on the country’s abundance of cheap, reliable electrical power. ____ example ____. In fact, Canada consumes more electricity on a per person basis than any country except for Norway ____ 8 ____
Electricity is a significant source of export income for Canada. ____ 9 ____ But in the 1970s , Canadian exports rose sharply to address the U. S. demand for cheaper and more reliable.
In 1985, exports of Canadian electrical power reached 1,400 million US dollars ____. 10 ____. Net electricity exports account for more than 60% of Canada’s balance of trade.
Domestically, Canada continues to generate electrical power, primarily from water ____ 11 ____ Exports of electricity are now subject to forces far beyond the control of utility managers ____ 12 ____
A. Besides, electricity from coal and nuclear is 50% to 75% cheaper than many other industrial nations.
B. Generated primarily by water, our power supplies have attracted and supported energy-intensive industries such as mining.
C. It also ranks among the top three electricity producers in the world, behind the U. S. and Russia.
D. Next to electricity, Canadian paper exports came to 900 million US dollars every year in the 1960s.
E. Two large nuclear power plants began to generate electricity.
F. Since then, electricity’ exports have declined but they have continued to exceed 700 million US dollars.
G. Environmental and trade policies all influence electrical production and trade.
H. Canada and the U. S. imported and exported power in almost equal measures after 1901.
I. Therefore, the Canadian government has little influence on these forces.
• Using the information in the text, complete each sentence 17-20 with a phrase A-G from the list below.
• For each question 17-20, mark one letter (A-G) on your Answer Sheet.
• Do not use any letter more than once.
17 Most people agree that the recent increase in stress is due to changes in ____________.
18 The trainees are taught that the right level of stress at work is important for good.
19 Trainees learn that one way of limiting stress is by deciding upon.
20 One of the most important parts of the course is learning how to react to___
A levels of performance
B shorter deadlines
C employment practices
D higher levels of sickness
E unfair demands
F successful management structure
G practical targets
You are Head of Research for an international car manufacturer. You have to make an urgent trip tomorrow to visit Pierre Blanco, a colleague who works for a subsidiary.
Write a memo of 30-40 words to your secretary.
Telling her who you are going to see and when;
Asking her to book flight tickets and accommodation;
Telling her what work you would like her to do in your absence;
Write on your answer sheet.
You are the manager of a TV and radio repair workshop. One of your employees has received the letter below about a faulty cassette player which he inspected. He has written his comments on the customer’s letter and asked you to write a reply.
Write a letter of 100-120 words to the customer, using the employee’s comments and explaining why your company cannot repair the cassette player.
Do not include addresses.
Write on your answer sheet.