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2017年12月英语六级长篇阅读真题(卷二)

2017年12月16日来源:233网校评论

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Data sharing: an open mind on open date

[ A] It is a movement building steady momentum: a call to make research data, software code and experimental methods publicly available and transparent. a spirit of openness is gaining acceptance in the science community, and is the only way, say advocates, to address a'crisis' incience whereby too few findings are successfully reproduced. furthermore, they say, it is the best way for researchers to gather the range of observations that are necessary to speed up discoveries or to identify large-scale trends.

[B] the open-data shift poses a confusing problem for junior researchers. on the one hand,the drive to share is gathering official steam. since 2013, global scientific bodies have begun to back politics that support increased public access to reseach.on the other hand,scientists disagree about how much and when they should share date,and they debate whether sharing it  is more likely to accelerate science and make it more robust, or to introduce vulnerabilities and problems.as more journals and make it more robust,or to introduce vulnerabilities and problems.as more journal and  funders adopt data-sharing requirements, and as a growing number of enthusiasts call for more openness, junior researchers must find their place between adopters and those who continue to hold out, even as they strive to launch their own careers.

[C] one key challenge facing young scientists is how to be open without becoming scientifically vulnerable. they must determine the risk of jeopardizing a job offer or a collaboration prosal from those who are wary of-or unfamiliar with -open science. and they must learn How to capitalize on the movement's benefits such as opportunities for more citations and a way to build a reputation without the need for conventional metrics, such as publication in high-impact journals.

[D] some fields have embraced open data more than others. researchers in psychology, a field rocked by findings of irreproducibility in the past few years, have been especially vocal sup-porters of the drive for more-open science.A few psychology journals have created incentives to increase interest in repar open science. a few psychology journals have created incentives porters of the drive for me lucible science -for example, by affixing an",badge to articles that clearly state where data are available. according to social psychologist brian nose executive director of the center for open science, the average data-sharing rate for the journal Psychological science, which uses the badges, increased tenfold to 38% from 2013 to 2015.

[E] funders, too, are increasingly adopting an open-data policy .several strongly ergement,and some require,a date-management  plan that makes data available .The us national science foundation  is among these, some philanthropic (慈善的) funders, including the bill Gates foundation in seattle, washington, and the wellcome trust in london, alopen data from their grant recipients.

[F]  but many young researchers, especially those who have not been mentored in open science .are uncertain about whether to share or to stay private.Graduate students and postdoes,who often are working on their lab head's grant may have no choice if their supervisor or another senior opposes sharing.

[G]  some fear that the potential impact of sharing is too high, especially at the early stages of a career." Everybody has a scary story about someone getting scooped(被抢先),” says new York university astronomer david hogg. those fears may be a factor in a lingering hesitation to share data even when publishing in journals that mandate it.

[H]  researchers at small labs or at institutions focused on teaching arguably have the most to lose when sharing hard-won data. ""with my institution and teaching load, i don't have postdocs and grad students", says terry mcglynn, a tropical biologist at california state university,Dominguez hills. "the stakes are higher to share data because it's a bigger fraction of hats happening in my lab.

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