Directions: in this section, you an going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it each statement contains information given in ine of the paragraphs.identify theparagraph from which the information is derived. you may choose a paragraph more than once. each paragraph is marked with a letter. answer the questions by marking the correspanding letter on answer sheet 2
Data sharing: an open mind on open data
[A] it is a movement building steady momentum: a call to make research data, software code and experimental metbods publicly availablc and transparent A spirit of openness is gaining acceptance in the science community, and is the only way, say advocates, to address a'crisis in science whereby too few findings are successfully reproduced. furthermore, they say, it is the best way for researchers to gather the range of observations that are necessary to speed up discoveries or to identify large-scale trends
[b] the open-data shift poses a confusing problem for junior researchers,on the one hand, the drive to share is gathering official steam. since 2013, global scientific bodies have begun to that support increased public access to research on the other hand, scientists disagree about how much and when they should share data, and they debate whether sharing it is more likely to accelerate science and make it more robust, or to introduce vulnerabilities and
problems. as more joumals and funders adopt data-sharing requirements, and as a growing number of enthusiasts call for more openness.junior researchers must find their place between adopters and those who continue to hold out, even as they strive to launch their own careers.
( c) one key challenge facing young scientists is how to be open without becoming scientifically vulnerable. they must determine the risk of jeopardizing a job offer or a collaboration proposal from those who are wary of -or unfamiliar with -open science. and they must learn how to capitalize on the movements benefits, such as opportunities for more citations and a way to build a reputation without the need for conventional metrics, such as publication in high-impact journals.
[D] some fields have embraced open data more than others. researchers in psychology, a field rocked by findings of irreproducibility in the past few years, have been especially vocal supporters of the drive for more-open science. a few psychology journals have created incentives to increase interest in reproducible science-for example, by affixing an" badge to articles that clearly state where data are available. according to social psychologist brian nosek,
executive director of the center for open science, the average data-sharing rate for the joumal Psychological science, which uses the badges, increased tenfold to 38% from 2013 to 2015.
[E] funders, too, are increasingly adopting an open-data policy several strongly encourage,and some require a data-management plan that makes data available. the ional scienc Foundation is among these. some philanthropic(&)funders, including the bill &melinda Gates foundation in seattle, washington, and the wellcome trust in london, also mandate open data from their grant recipients.
[F] but many young rescarchers,especially those who have not been mentored in open science are uncertain about whether to share or to stay private. graduate students and who often are working on their lab heads grant, may have no choice if their supervisor or another senior colleague opposes sharing.
[G] some fear that the potential impact of sharing is too high, especially at the early stages of a career "Everybody has a story about soneone getting scooped"says New York university astronomer david hogg. those fears may be a factor in a lingering hesitation to share data even when publishing in journals that mandate it.
[H] researchers at small labs or at institutions focused on teaching arguably have the most to lose.when sharing hard-won data. "with my institution and teaching load, i don't have postdocs and grad students, "says terry mcglynn, a tropical biologist at california state university,Dominguez hills. "the stakes are higher for me to share data because it's a bigger fraction of what's happening in my lab."