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A.At Feltonville School of Arts and Sciences, a middle school in a poor neighborhoodof Philadelphia, the school year began chaotically as budget cuts took effect. Lines ofkids snaked out the door while a single school secretary tried to ensure the 600 or sostudents attending were registered. Classrooms were packed to their limit of 33;someeven spilled over.
B. This year, with the cuts meaning no school nurse or counselor, teachers fill the gaps,disrupting lessons to help students in distress. And the problems are not small: Aboy was stabbed in the head with a pencil by a fellow student; a girl reported sexualassault by an uncle; another refused to speak after the brutal murder of a parent. Andthat was just the start of the school year.
C."I had a kid in class today who threatened to slash her wrists with a broken ruler," saidAmy Roat, a teacher at Feltonville, "Most of us can't even prepare lessons becausewe're using all our time counseling kids." To make matters worse, budget cuts arehurting essential academic programs. Feltonville eliminated two math teachers andtwo science teachers this year. Now many students who used to get 90 minutes ofmath instruction a day, only get half that.
D. Across the United States, whether it's schools, health care or entry-level jobs, theyoung are feeling the impact of government cutbacks. With debt and public spendingat the top of the Republican agenda, with Grand Old Party members promising not toraise revenue through taxes in any circumstances, there has never been a worse timeto need help from the government.
E.Not long ago, the young and vulnerable especially have been hit hard through federalspending cuts to programs like Head Start, nutrition assistance, and child welfare.Financial crises in cities like Philadelphia and Detroit have meant another wave ofschool budget cutbacks. And the weak job market is hurting the youngest workersmost, with youth unemployment more than double the national jobless rate.
F. This is not just an American problem. In Europe, too, austerity budgets ( 紧缩预算 ) arepinching even basic education and health needs. A decrease in the amount of moneyfor fundamental social programs that have been in operation since World War II iswidespread across the developed world. As governments try to cover budget shortfallsand calm debt fears, the young are losing out. "We're underinvesting ( 投资不足 )in our children," said Julia Isaacs, a senior fellow at the Urban Institute and a childpolicy expert. "Looking at future budget trends and the fact that Congress doesn'twant to raise taxes, I can see children's programs continuing to be squeezed."
That has implications for long-term economic growth. Cutting back on the youngis like eating the seed corn: satisfying a momentary need but leaving no way to grow a prosperous future. The debate on Capitol Hill, fired by Americans who have become skeptical of the value of federal spending, is all big-picture economics. It is a principled debate about where government starts and ends.
But is America overspending on its young? Public spending in the U.S. on children came to $12,164 per child in 2008, in current dollars, according to Kids' Share, an annual report published by the Urban Institute. Of that total, about a third came from the federal government and two thirds from state and local governments.
I.Compare that to what we spend on the elderly, which primarily comes from the federal government. According to the Urban Institute, public outlays on the elderly, in current dollars, was $27,117 per person in 2008, more than double the spending on children. The trend is the same across the developed world. Julia Lynch, a political science professor at the University of Pennsylvania, studied 20 countries in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development between 1985 and 2000 and found each spent more public funds on the elderly than on the young.
J.But there were large differences among them. She found the most youth-oriented welfare states were the Netherlands, Canada, Australia, and in Scandinavia, while the most elderly-oriented were Japan, Italy, Greece, the U.S., Spain, and Austria. Somewhere in the middle were Germany, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Portugal. For all the talk about needing to cut spending to save our children and grandchildren from paying off our debt, in practice we are already ignoring our children so we may remain comfortable deep into old age.
K. Since the 1960s, federal spending on kids in the U.S. had been rising. That trend ended in 2011, when it dropped by $2 billion to $377 billion. A year later the figureplunged even more--by $28 billion, or a 7 percent decline. And spending on kids isprojected to shrink further over the next decade. The Urban Institute has forecast that federal spending on kids will decrease from 10 percent of the federal budget today to 8 percent by 2023.
L. That decline will occur even as federal spending is expected to increase by $1 trillion over the same period. In other words, kids are not expected to benefit much, if at all, from a big jump in federal spending forecast over the next decade. "There'sconcern about the growing gap between the rich and the poor," said LaurenceKotlikoff, a professor of economics at Boston University and co-author of The Coming Generational Storm, "But we've got another big problem: the growing gap inspending on the young versus the old."
M.Federal spending has increased dramatically for the elderly--but not for the young.According to the Urban Institute, while the children's share of the domestic federalbudget has declined 23 percent during the past 50 years, non-children spending on Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid has more than doubled. Today, an elderlyperson gets about seven federal dollars for every one dollar given to a child. Andwhile the elderly population is roughly half the size of all children in the U.S.,taxpayers spend three times as much for them as they do on the young.
N. So, what is the federal government spending on? The budget can be roughly divided in the following way: 41 percent goes to the elderly and disabled portions of Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid; 20 percent to defense; 10 percent to children;6 percent to interest payments on the debt; and 23 percent to all other governmentfunctions. So if spending on kids does fall to 8 percent of the federal budget, andif interest payments rise along with higher interest rates over the same period, thefederal government soon will be spending more on interest payments on the debt thanon children.
O. Such cutbacks hurt low-income kids the most. That's because federal spending onkids tends to target those in need with programs like Medicaid and food stamps,while state and local spending focuses on education. Isaacs has calculated thatdisadvantaged children get about twice as much per capita as those who are better off.
 So cutbacks on kids are exacerbating ( 加剧 ) the gap between rich and poor, andthe two issues are now firmly intertwined.
P. What's driving government cutbacks? Much can be tied to fears of rising nationaldebt. Paradoxically, advocates of debt reduction and fiscal austerity claim they areacting in the interest of the young; our debts seem be too onerous (繁重的 ) for thenext generation. But in a hypercompetitive global economy, nations investing today inthe well-being and education of the young are writing the success stories of tomorrow.
It's very difficult for young people to find a job now, and young people's unemploymentrate is more than twice that of the whole nation.

2、Questions are based on the following passage.
President Obama signed a legislation to provide twenty-six billion dollars to the States for education and healthcare.The measures include ten billion dollars for education and sixteen billion for Medicaid, the jointstate-federal government medical program for the poor.The legislation will help one hundred and sixty thousand teachers and one hundred and fifty thousand police and public service workers keep their jobs.Thus,
the measures are good news for them.
The House of Representatives has approved the bill.House members had already begun a six-week holiday when the Senate approved the measure last week.Speaker of the House, Nancy Pelosi, took the rare step of calling House lawmakers back to Washington to vote on the bill and send it to President Obama without delay.It is obvious that the House of Representatives are also very concerned with the progress.
President Obama has stressed the importance of education for all Americans.He said this is necessary for the "country to compete among some of the world's fastest growing economies.In a speech given at the University of Texas, the president talked about the decrease in college graduation rates in the United States.
"In a single generation, we've fallen from first place to twelfth place in college graduation rates for young adults.That is unacceptable, but it is not irreversible.We can retake the lead. President Obama said educational success and economic well-being are linked, especially in a world economy driven by information and technology,His goal is to increase the percentage of college graduates from forty percent to sixty percent by the year 2020.The president said the federal government has already
reformed the student loan system and increased tax credits for families struggling to pay college education costs.It is hoped that those measures would be effective.
Democrats in Congress say spending for the new bill will not add to the federal budget deficit.But some Republican lawmakers criticized the measure.House Republican leader John Boehner dismissed the emergency jobs measure as more wasteful spending aimed at pleasing the Democrats' traditional union allies.
"The American people are screaming at the top of their lungs, ' Stop! ' And Washington continues to spend, spend, spend."
Hours before the vote, President Obama told reporters at the White House that education and the safety of communities should not be a political party issue."Those interests are widely shared throughout this country.A challenge that affects parents, children and citizens in almost every community in America should not be a Democratic problem or a Republican problem.It is an American problem.
Which of the following would NOT benefit from the new legislation?
C.Public service workers.

3、Questions are based on the passage you have just heard.
A.Content of speech is more important than tone of voice.
B.Voice quality has a strong effect on listeners.
C.Effective speakers must use visual aids.
D.A microphone is essential in large rooms.

A. Long before Sci Academy, a charter school in New Orleans, had graduated its first senior class, the school was being heaped with accolades ( 称赞). In September 2010, when Sci Academy was just two years old, its 200 excited students--then all freshmen and sophomores--filed into Greater St. Stephen Baptist church, next door to the school. Together with local dignitaries ( 显要人物 ), journalists, and a brass band, the students watched on huge screens as the leaders of six charter schools from around the country appeared on The Oprah Winfrey Show. At the end of the show, they watched as Oprah handed each charter-school leader—including Ben Marcovitz, Sci Academy's founder—a $1 million check.
B. Sci Academy is a flagship charter school and a model of the new data-driven, business-infused approach to education that has won its worship in New Orleans. After Hurricane Katrina in 2005, education reformers swept away what remained of the traditional public schools in what had been one of the nation's lowest- performing districts. In their place, charters promised choice and increased accountability( 负责制 ). More than 75 percent of New Orleans kids landed in schools controlled by the so-called Recovery School District, which was heavily dominated by charter schools.
C. "This transformation of the New Orleans educational system may turn out to be the most significant national development in education since desegregation," wrote Neerav Kingsland, the CEO of New Schools for New Orleans, the city's leading venture-philanthropy group incubating local charter schools, a year ago. "New Orleans students have access to educational opportunities that are far superior to any in recent memory."
D. But eight years after Hurricane Katrina, there is evidence that the picture is far more complicated. Seventy- nine percent of RSD charters are still rated D or F by the Louisiana Department of Education. Sci is one of two RSD high schools to earn a B; there are no A-rated open-admission schools. In a school system with about 42,000 mostly poor African-American kids, every year thousands are out of school at any given time-- because they are on suspension, have dropped out, or are incarcerated. Even at successful schools, such as the highly regarded Sci Academy, large numbers of students never make it to graduation, and others are unlikely to make it through college.
E. Figuring out what has taken place in the New Orleans schools is not just a matter of interest to local residents. From cities like New York to towns like Muskegon Heights, Michigan, market-style reforms have been widely considered as the answer to America's educational woes. New Orleans tells us a lot about what these reforms look like in practice. And the current reality of the city's schools should be enough to give pause to even the most passionate charter supporters.
F.With its chain-link fence and campus of module-like buildings--the result of a continuing post-Hurricane Katrina building shortage--Sci Academy doesn't look much like a model school. Freshmen, wearing the polo shirts and khakis of the school uniform, are required to walk along straight red lines that snake through the school's breezeways. Placards bearing slogans, such as "No Short Cuts; No Excuses" and "Go Above and Beyond," hang overhead.
G. Everything at Sci Academy is carefully designed to maintain discipline and focus on the school's principal mission, which is to get every student into college. Each morning, at 8 a.m., the teachers, almost all white and in their 20s, gather for a rousing thigh-slapping, hand-clapping, rap-chanting staff revival meeting, the beginning of what will be, for most, a 14- to 16-hour workday. Students arrive a half hour later, and if asked "Why are you here?" and "What will it take?" are expected to respond "To learn" followed by a recitation of the school's six core values: "achievement, respect, responsibility, perseverance, teamwork, and enthusiasm."
H. Both curriculum and behavior are elaborately arranged. As kids file into class, a teacher hands them their "entry ticket," a survey that helps determine how much students retained from the previous class. An "exit ticket" distributed at the end of each class establishes how much kids have absorbed. Information from the exit tickets, as well as attendance, demerits for bad behavior, and "Sci bucks" for good behavior, are keyed into the Sci software system by teachers every night to help monitor both student and teacher performance.
I.After the storm, the state fired the city's unionized teachers, who were mostly middle-aged African- Americans, an action that has been challenged in court. While a few schools have hired back teachers who worked in the pre-Katrina schools, the city now relies heavily on inexperienced educators--mostly young, white, and from out of town--who are willing, at least in the short run, to put in exhausting hours. But at many schools, including Sci Academy, plenty of teachers last for less than two years.
J.In New Orleans, teachers with certifications from Teach for America number close to 400, five times the level a few years ago. Within the RSD, in 2011, 42 percent of teachers had less than three years of experience; 22 percent have spent just one year or less in the classroom, according to "The State of Public Education in New Orleans," a 2012 report by the pro-charter Cowen Institute at Tulane University.
K. In part to help with this lack of experience, charter schools train teachers in highly regimented routines that help them keep control of their classrooms. The city's charter-school advocates argue that in the aftermath of the storm, when charter operators had to scale up quickly, they needed to start with basics: first order and security, then skill building. "Kids expect high school to be dangerous. They come to school with their backs up," explains Sci Academy's Marcovitz, a graduate of the elite Maret school in Washington, D.C., and Yale University. He says the routines--which are borrowed from methods pioneered by KIPP, a national charter chain that also operates schools in New Orleans--are intended to keep students focused and feeling safe.
L. In one English class last fall, a teacher who had been at Sci for about a year held forth on the fine points of grammar, including the subtle difference between modal and auxiliary verbs. As a few heads drifted downward, she employed a popular charter-school management routine to hold the class's attention. "SPARK check! " she called. The acronym stands for sit straight; pencil to paper (or place hands folded in front); ask and answer questions; respect; and keep tracking the speaker.
M. "Heads up, sit straight--15 seconds to go," she said, trying to get her students' attention. "All scholars please raise your homework in THREE, TWO, ONE. We need to set a goal around homework completion. I only see about one third complete homework."
N.It's a long way from the city's charter school roots. In the 1990s, the city's first charter school, New Orleans Charter Middle School, was built on a progressive curriculum that used experiential projects and electives,
such as bicycle repair and African dance, to foster a love of learning. The school became the most highly rated nonselective school in the city before it was devastated during Hurricane Katrina. But while its founders went
on to create FirstLine, now one of the leading charter operators in New Orleans, the progressive roots of the charter movement have been swamped by the new realities of a competitive charter marketplace.
O.Now, driven by both government policy and charitable funding--which rewards schools for preparing students for college and penalizes those that don't--most charter high schools in New Orleans describe themselves as "college prep." This may seem an admirable goal. But in a school system where the number of eighth graders who passed the end-of-course tests required to get into high school has, according to the Cowen Institute, virtually stagnated at about 60 percent, the push toward college leaves behind many of the most disadvantaged kids, who already face enormous hurdles because of poverty, parental abandonment, and one of the highest rates of gun violence in the nation. For some of these students, college is not necessarily a realistic goal.
Teachers in charter schools are trained in strict and rigid ways since most of them are inexperienced.

International airlines have rediscovered the business travelers, the man or woman who regularly jets from country to country as part of the job.This does not necessarily mean that airlines ever (26) __ their business travelers.Indeed, companies like Lufthansa and Swissair would rightly argue that they have always (27) __ best for the executive class passengers.But many lines could (28) __ concentrating too heavily in the recent past on attracting passengers by volume, often (29)__ regular travelers.
Too often, they have seemed geared for quantity rather than quality.Operating a major airline in the 1980s is essentially a matter of finding the right mix of passengers.The airlines need to fill up the back end of their wide-bodied jets with low fare passengers, without forgetting that the front end should be filled with
people who pay (30)more for their tickets..
It is no (31)__ that the two major airline bankruptcies in 1982 were among the companies (32)__ cheap flights.But low fares require consistently full aircraft to make flights economically viable, and in the recent recession the volume of traffic has not grown.Equally the large number of airlines jostling for(争夺) the (33)__ passengers has created a huge excess of capacity.The net result of ex-
cess capacity and cut-throat competition driving down fares has been to push some airlines into (34)____and leave many others hovering on the brink.
Against this grim background, it is no surprise that airlines are t~rning increasingly to the business travelers to improve their rates of return.They have (35) __ much time and effort to establish exactly what the executive demands for sitting apart from the tourists.

6、中国园林(Chinese gardens)是经过三千多年的演变而成的独具一格的园林景观。它既包括为皇室成员享乐而建遣的大型花园,也包括学者、商人和卸任的政府官员为摆脱嘈杂的外部世界而建造的私家花园。这些花园构成了一种意在表达人与自然之问应有的和谐关系的微缩景观。典型的中国园林四周有围墙,因内有池塘、假山(rockwork)、树木、花草以及各种各样由蜿蜒的小路和走廊连接的建筑。漫步在花园中,人们可以看到一系列精心设计的景观犹如山水画卷(scroll)般展现在面前。

Growing numbers of bright students face missing out on their first choice university, academics warned today, as figures showed three-quarters of institutions are being forced to reduce places.
Almost 100 out of 130 universities in England could be forced to take fewer(26)__________this year,following the introduction of Coalition reforms designed to drive down (27) __________ fees.
Many members of the elite Russell Group are among those facing (28) __________, with Liverpool, Leeds,Manchester, Newcastle and Southampton being particularly (29)__________Data from the Government's Higher Education Funding Council for England suggests some newer universities such as Bedfordshire and East London are expecting tolose around one-in-eight places.
The cuts are being (30) __________ following the introduction of new roles that effectively (31) __________universities charging more than £7,500 in student fees from this autumn.
It means large numbers of places are being (32) __________ towards cheap further education colleges.
Ministers are also lifting controls on the number of bright students gaining at least two A grades and a B at A-level that universities can recruit--(33) __________an inevitable scramble towards a small number of top institutions.
The funding council's chief executive denied the loss of student places would tip any institution into significant financial trouble.
But Prof Michael Farthing, vice-chancellor of Sussex University and chairman of the 1994 Group, which represents many small research institutions, said the figures show that many excellent students will be denied places at their first choice universities.
"The number of students universities are allowed to recruit has been cut across the sector, with 20,000 places (34) __________to institutions with lower than average fees, "he said.
"Far from giving the best universities freedom to (35) __________ more students, this represents a push to a cut-price education."


The ancient Greeks developed basic memory systems called Mnemonics. The name is (26)__________ their Goddess of Memory, Mnemosyne. In the ancient world, a trained memory was an immense asset, (27) __________ in public life. There were no convenient devices for taking notes and early Greek orators (演说家) delivered long speeches with great (28) __________because they learned the speeches using Mnemonic systems.
The Greeks (29)__________that human memory is largely an associative process-that it works by linking things together. For example, think of an apple. The (30) __________. your brain registers the word "apple", it recalls the shape, colour, taste, smell and texture of that fruit. All these things are associated in your memory with the word "apple".
This means that any thought about a certain subject will often (31 ) __________ more memories that are related to it. An example could be when you think about a lecture you have had. This could(32) __________ a memory about what you were talking about through that lecture, which can then trigger another memory.
Associations do not have to be ( 33 ) __________. They just have to make a good link. An example given on a website I was looking at follows: Do you remember the shape of Austria,Canada, Belgium, or Germany? (34)__________not. What about Italy, though? If you remember the shape of Italy, it is because you have been told at sometime that Italy is shaped like a boot. You (35) __________ something already known, the shape of a boot, and Italy's shape could not be  forgotten once you had made the association.

10、 __________

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