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2016年英语六级考试每日一练(1月4日)

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单项选择题
1、
A. cynic, Ambrose Bierce remarked in his "Devil's Dictionary", is "a blackguard ( 无赖,恶棍) whose faulty vision sees things as they are, not as they ought to be." Inthe century that has elapsed since Bierce's death, science has caught up with him.Cynicism, in all its guises, really may make us see the world more realistically--though at a high personal cost.
 B. The phenomenon, which psychologists call "depressive realism", was first identifiedby Lauren Alloy and Lyn Abramson, psychologists at Northwestern and the StateUniversity of New York at Stony Brook, respectively, who were studying the illusionthat people often have of being in control when, in reality, they are not. In 1979, theytook two groups of college students--one depressed, one not--and had them estimatehow much control they had over a green light that would either turn on or not whenthey pressed a button. In reality, there was never a perfect correlation between theaction and the event. The light would sometimes turn on when the student pressed thebutton, and sometimes when he didn't. What varied from student to student was thefrequency with which the action corresponded with a result. The researchers found.that the depressed individuals were much better at identifying those instances whenthey had little control over the outcomes, while the non-depressed students tended tooverestimate their degree of influence over the light.
C. The difference became even more interesting when Alloy and Abramson added money
into the experiment. In some cases, the light was linked to losing money. Participantsstarted out with five dollars and gradually lost it, quarter by quarter, as the lightdidn't respond to their actions. In the other cases, the light signaled financial gain;participants started with nothing but received a quarter each time the light went on. Atthe end, each person in the first situation emerged having lost five dollars, and each inthe second having won five dollars.
D. When the researchers asked the participants how much control they thought they'dhad throughout the experiment, those who weren't depressed reported havingsignificantly more control than they actually had--but only when they won. Whenthey lost, they estimated that they had much less control than was the case. Thedepressed participants, on the other hand, were far more accurate in their judgments.Depression, Alloy and Abramson concluded, had prevented an unwarranted ( 毫无根据的 ) illusion of control when someone won--and had provided a sense ofresponsibility when someone lost. In the years since Alloy and Abramson's initialstudies, depressive realism has also been shown to arise from general pessimism and,yes, from cynicism.
E. By 1992, Alloy and Abramson had replicated their findings in numerous contexts. Notonly were depressed individuals more realistic in their judgments, they argued, butthe very illusion of being in control held by those who weren't depressed was likelyprotecting them from depression. In other words, the rose-colored glow, no matterhow unwarranted, helped people to maintain a healthier mental state. Depression bredobjectivity. A lack of objectivity led to a healthier, more adaptive, and more resilient (能复原的 ) mind-set.
F. Why would that be the case? As it turns out, the way we explain the world canhave very real effects on our physical and emotional well-being--both positive andnegative. It's a phenomenon that the Harvard University psychologist Daniel Gilberthas called the "psychological immune system", a feedback loop between how wethink and how we feel. If we think more optimistically, we tend to feel better, whichin tum makes us think more optimistically.
 G. The notion that our outlook on life is connected to our well-being is not a new one.In the nineteen-sixties, the University of Connecticut psychologist Julian Rotterproposed that we could view extemal events in one of two lights: either we controlledthem or they were the result of something in the environment. He found thatsuccessful people tended to follow the same patterns. They took credit for successes,and they reasoned away negative events.
 H. A decade later, the University of Massachusetts Bobbi Fibel and W psychologistsDaniel Hale realized that the effect went even further: when you thought you'd dowell--a mind-set that they termed a "generalized expectancy of success"--you weremore likely to be shielded from negative life events. It didn't matter whether youwere in control; what mattered was your belief that you had good things coming toyou. Positive expectations generally lead to positive results.
 I. Most recently, the psychologists Michael Scheier and Charles Carver have takenthe insight further still: the positive buffer comes from neither simply control norexpectation alone. Instead, it's your general outlook on life, or, as they call it, your "lifeorientation". Their Life Orientation Test, or LOT, measures how a person respondsto a set of statements that range from "I hardly expect things to go my way" to "Inuncertain times, I usually expect the best." Positive responses are associated withgeneralized success and negative responses are related to depression and helplessness.
J .In a review of the field, Carver and Scheier have further expanded their initialfindings to show that increased optimism, after controlling for other factors, alsoleads to improved career success, strengthens friendships and marriages, protectsagainst loneliness later in life, lowers the risk of heart disease and mortality ( 死亡率 ) in wome.n, protects against strokes, helps to reduce the need for rehospitalization ( 重复住院) following surgery, and improves sleep quality in children. In all cases, optimism serves as a shield, allowing us to see the world in a light that is more helpful to our own mental and physical well-being.
K. It all comes back, Daniel Gilbert says, to expectations. When we expect to do well, we push on. When we set our sights lower, we balk at signs of resistance. Depressive realists and cynics set themselves lower goals to begin with and then give up when they find that they are falling short. As everyone's favorite pessimist, A. A. Milne's Eeyore, tells Pooh, "We can't all, and some of us don't. That's all there is to it." His expectations are so low that the effort doesn't seem worth it. The negative view is self-fulfilling: you set lower expectations, do less, achieve less, and experience a worse outcome, which in turn conforms to your initial negative views.
 L. Of course, unwarranted optimism, too, comes with a price. It's Tigger, the unrelenting( 不屈不饶的 ) optimist, who finds himself eating thistles, stuck in trees, and otherwise caught in all manner of inopportune situations. When we're overconfident and think we're in control of situations when we're not, we may find ourselves overreaching and persisting in hopeless tasks. It's a fine balance. Set your goals too high, and the effects on health can be just as perilous ( 危险的,不利的) . Aspire to an Olympic medal in figure skating when you can barely clear a double Axel, and you're doomed to disappointment.
M. Still, it seems that, at least as far as the research goes, it's far healthier to think like Tigger than like Eeyore.
Optimism, no matter how unrealistic it is, can improve people's mental health.

2、Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.
"That which does not kill us makes us stronger." But parents can't handle it when teenagers put this____36____into practice. Now technology has become the new field for the age-old battle between adults en adults and their freedom-seeking kids.
Locked indoors, unable to get on their bicycles and hang out with their friends, teens have turned to social media and their mobile phones to socialize with their peers. What they do online often ____37____what they might otherwise do if their mobility weren't so heavily .____38____in the age of helicopter parenting. Social media and smart-phone apps have become so popular in recent years because teens need a place to call their own. They want the freedom to____39____their identity and the world around them.
Instead of____40____ out, they jump online.
As teens have moved online, parents have projected their fears onto the Internet, imagining all the____41____ dangers that youth might face--from ____42____ strangers to cruel peers to pictures or words that could haunt them on Google for the rest of their lives.
Rather than helping teens develop strategies for negotiating public life and the risks of ____43____ with others, fearful parents have focused on tracking, monitoring and blocking. These tactics (策略) don't help teens develop the skills they need to manage complex social situations____,44____ risks and get help when they're in trouble. "Protecting" kids may feel like the right thing to do, but it ____45____ the learning that teens need to do as they come of age in a technology-soaked world.
A. assess
B. constrained
C. contains
D. explore
E. influence
F. interacting
G. interpretation
H. magnified
I. mirrors
J. philosophy
K. potential
L. sneaking
M. sticking
N. undermines
O. violent
第(36)题__________


3、听音频,回答下列题

A.He can't sleep very well.
B.His wrist and toes ache.
C.His knees and fingers ache.
D.His blood pressure is high.


4、听音频,回答下列题

A.The US should catch up to European environmental standards.
B.American exporters must adapt to new regulations in Europe.
C.The US should be more sensitive to environmental issues.
D.The EU's new regulations are a burden.


5、听音频,回答下列题:

A. Narrow down the topic of her article. 
B. Read and revise her essay.
C. Provide some facts for her opinion.
D. Give her some advice on writing a paper.


6、根据材料,回答题
Daylight Saving Time (DST)
How and When Did Daylight Saving Time Start?
A. Benjamin Franklin--of "early to bed and early to rise" fame--was apparently the first person to suggest the concept of daylight savings. While serving as U.S. ambassador to France in Pads, Franklin wrote of being awakened at 6 a.m. and realizing, to his surprise, that the sun would rise far earlier than he usually did. Imagine the resources that might be saved if he and others rose before noon and burned less midnight oil, Franklin, tongue half in cheek, wrote to a newspaper.
B. It wasn't until World War I that daylight savings were realized on a grand scale. Germany was the first state to adopt the time changes, to reduce artificial lighting and thereby save coal for the war effort. Friends and foes soon followed suit. In the U.S. a federal law standardized the yearly start and end of daylight saving time in 1918--for the states that chose to observe it.
C. During World War II the U.S. made daylight saving time mandatory(强制的) for the whole country, as a way to save wartime resources. Between February 9, 1942, and September 30, 1945, the government took it a step further. During this period daylight saving time was observed year-round, essentially making it the new standard time, if only for a few years. Many years later, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 was enacted, mandating a controversial month-long extension of daylight saving time, starting in 2007.Daylight Saving Time: Energy Saver or Just Time Sucker?
D. In recent years several studies have suggested that daylight saving time doesn't actually save energy--and might even result in a net loss. Environmental economist Hendrik Wolff, of the University of Washington, co- authored a paper that studied Australian power-use data when parts of the country extended daylight saving time for the 2000 Sydney Olympics and others did not. The researchers found that the practice reduced lighting and electricity consumption in the evening but increased energy use in the now dark mornings-- wiping out the evening gains. That's because the extra hour that daylight saving time adds in the evening is a hotter hour. "So if people get home an hour earlier in a wanner house, they turn on their air conditioning," the University of Washington's Wolff said.
E. But other studies do show energy gains. In an October 2008 daylight saving time report to Congress, mandated by the same 2005 energy act that extended daylight saving time, the U.S. Department of Energy asserted that springing forward does save energy. Extended daylight saving time saved 1.3 terawatt ( 太瓦 ) hours of electricity. That figure suggests that daylight saving time reduces annual U.S. electricity consumption by 0.03 percent and overall energy consumption by 0.02 percent. While those percentages seem small, they could represent significant savings because of the nation's enormous total energy use.
F.What's more, savings in some regions are apparently greater than in others. California, for instance, appears to benefit most from daylight saving time--perhaps because its relatively mild weather encourages people to stay outdoors later. The Energy Department report found that daylight saving time resulted in an energy savings of one percent daily in the state.
G.But Wolff, one of many scholars who contributed to the federal report, suggested that the numbers were subject to statistical variability ( 变化) and shouldn't be taken as hard facts. And daylight savings' energy gains in the U.S. largely depend on your location in relation to the Mason-Dixon Line, Wolff said."The North might be a slight winner, because the North doesn't have as much air conditioning," he said. "But the South is a definite loser in terms of energy consumption. The South has more energy consumption under daylight saving."
Daylight Saving Time: Healthy or Harmful?
H. For decades advocates of daylight savings have argued that, energy savings or no, daylight saving time boosts health by encouraging active lifestyles--a claim Wolff and colleagues are currently putting to the test. "In a nationwide American time-use study, we're clearly seeing that, at the time of daylight saving time extension in the spring, television watching is substantially reduced and outdoor behaviors like jogging, walking, or going to the park are substantially increased," Wolff said. "That's remarkable, because of course the total amount of daylight in a given day is the same. "
I.But others warn of ill effects. Till Roenneberg, a university professor in Munich (慕尼黑), Germany, said his studies show that our circadian (生理节奏的 ) body clocks--set by light and darkness--never adjust to gaining an "extra" hour of sunlight to the end of the day during daylight saving time.
J.One reason so many people in the developed world are chronically (长期地) overtired, he said, is that they suffer from"social jet lag. "In other words, their optimal circadian sleep periods don't accord with their actual sleep schedules. Shifting daylight from morning to evening only increases this lag, he said. "Light doesn't do the same things to the body in the morning and the evening. More light in the morning would advance the body clock, and that would be good. But more light in the evening would even further delay the body clock. "
K.Other research hints at even more serious health risks. A 2008 study concluded that, at least in Sweden, heart attack risks go up in the days just after the spring time change. "The most likely explanation to our findings is disturbed sleep and disruption of biological rhythms," One expert told National Geographic News via email.
Daylight Savings' Lovers and Haters
L. With verdicts (定论) on the benefits, or costs, of daylight savings so split, it may be no surprise that the yearly time changes inspire polarized reactions. In the U.K., for instance, the Lighter Later movement--part of 10:10,a group advocating cutting carbon emissions--argues for a sort of extreme daylight savings. First, they say,move standard time forward an hour, then keep observing daylight saving time as usual--adding two hours ofevening daylight to what we currently consider standard time. The folks behind Standardtime.com, on the other hand, want to abolish daylight saving time altogether, calling energy-efficiency claims "unproven. "
M. National telephone surveys by Rasmussen Reports from spring 2010 and fall 2009 deliver the same answer.Most people just "don't think the time change is worth the hassle (麻烦的事 ). " Forty-seven percent agreedwith that statement, while only 40 percent disagreed. But Seize the Daylight author David Prerau said his research on daylight saving time suggests most people are fond of it."I think if you ask most people if they enjoy having an extra hour of daylight in the evening eight months a year, the response would be pretty positive."
Daylight savings' energy gains might be various due to different climates.


7、Questions are based on the passage you have just heard.
第16题答案为
A.To review material covered in an earlier lecture.
B.To change students' approach to writing.
C.To point out an example of good writing.
D.To give an assignment for the next class.


填空题
8、Questions are based on the following passage.
In the second half of the twentieth century, many countries of the South began to send students to the industrialized countries for further education. They36needed supplies of highly trained personnel to37 a concept of development based on modernization. But many of these students decided to stay on in the developed
countries when they had finished their training.
In the 1960s, some Latin American countries tried to solve this problem by setting up special "return"programs to encourage their professionals to come back home. These programs received support from international bodies such as the International Organization for Migration, which in 1974enabled over 1,60038scientists and technicians to return to Latin America.
In the 1980s and 1990s, "temporary return" programs were set up in order to make the best use of trained personnel39strategic positions in the developed countries. This gave rise to the United Nations Development Program's Transfer of Knowledge through Expatriate Nationals, which encourages technicians and scientists to work in their own countries for short periods. But the brain drain from these countries may well increase in40 to the new laws of the international market in knowledge.
Recent studies 41 that the most developed countries are going to need more and more highly qualified professionals around twice as many as their educational systems will be able to produce, or so it is thought. As a 42there is an urgent need for developing countries which send students abroad to give43to fields where they need competent people to give muscle to their own institutions, instead of encouraging the training of people who may not come back because there are no professional outlets for them. And the countries of the South must not be content with institutional structures that simply take back professionals sent abroad; they must introduce 44administrative procedures to encourage them to return. If they do not do this, the brain drain is45to continue.
A. forecast
B. flexible
C. neutrally
D. preference
E.detachM
F. bound
G. implement
H. consequence
I. qualified
J. dismissing
K. result
L.occupying
M. urgently
N . skeptical
O . response
__________


9、 __________


简答题
10、Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay entitled Shortage of Fresh Water by commenting on the saying, "Do not let our tears be the last drop of water on the Earth." You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
Shortage of Fresh Water
__________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

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