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2016年英语六级考试每日一练(1月5日)

2016年1月5日来源:233网校评论
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  • 第1页:练习试题
单项选择题
1、Questions  are based on the following passage.
Fear responses can only be erased when people learn something new while retrieving the fear memory. This is the conclusion of a study 1 by scientists from the Universityof Amsterdam and published in the journal Science.
Three researchers have developed a method to determine whether an acquired fearresponse is susceptible to modification. By doing so, they have revealed the 2 underwhich an acquired fear response can be eradicated.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is currently the most common and effective typeof treatment for people 3 from anxiety disorders. However, the effects are oftenshort-lived and the fear returns in many patients. One major finding of the study is thatwhen participants were given propranolol ( 心得安,一种药物 ) , a beta blocker, whileretrieving a4fear memory, the acquired fear response was shown to be totally eraseda day or a month later. The researchers 5 found that the fear did not come back,despite the use of techniques specifically aimed to make it return. This indicates that thefear memory was either fully eradicated, or could no longer be6For their study the researchers used a fear conditioning procedure in which a specificpicture was followed by a painful 7. While the participants viewed the pictures,the researchers measured the anticipation of the painful stimulus as well as the moreautonomous fear response on the basis of the startle reflex ( 惊跳反射) .
The current findings will contribute to the further development of more effectiveand8 therapies for patients suffering from excessive anxiety disorders, such astrauma 9. There was no independent measure to indicate whether the memoryis susceptible to modification up until now. The researchers have shown that the fear response can be eradicated 10., provided that the person concerned actually learnssomething new while retrieving the fear memory.
A.accessed
B.circumstances
C.completely
D.conducted
E.decent
F.efficient
G.essential
H.exceedingly
I.infecting
J.repeatedly
K.specific
L.stimulus
M.suffering
N.verdicts
O.victims
第1题应选(     )

2、听音频:
点击播放


回答题:

A.Surfing the net.
B.Watching a talk show.
C.Packing a birthday gift.
D.Shopping at a jewelry store.


3、根据材料,回答题
Daylight Saving Time (DST)
How and When Did Daylight Saving Time Start?
A. Benjamin Franklin--of "early to bed and early to rise" fame--was apparently the first person to suggest the concept of daylight savings. While serving as U.S. ambassador to France in Pads, Franklin wrote of being awakened at 6 a.m. and realizing, to his surprise, that the sun would rise far earlier than he usually did. Imagine the resources that might be saved if he and others rose before noon and burned less midnight oil, Franklin, tongue half in cheek, wrote to a newspaper.
B. It wasn't until World War I that daylight savings were realized on a grand scale. Germany was the first state to adopt the time changes, to reduce artificial lighting and thereby save coal for the war effort. Friends and foes soon followed suit. In the U.S. a federal law standardized the yearly start and end of daylight saving time in 1918--for the states that chose to observe it.
C. During World War II the U.S. made daylight saving time mandatory(强制的) for the whole country, as a way to save wartime resources. Between February 9, 1942, and September 30, 1945, the government took it a step further. During this period daylight saving time was observed year-round, essentially making it the new standard time, if only for a few years. Many years later, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 was enacted, mandating a controversial month-long extension of daylight saving time, starting in 2007.Daylight Saving Time: Energy Saver or Just Time Sucker?
D. In recent years several studies have suggested that daylight saving time doesn't actually save energy--and might even result in a net loss. Environmental economist Hendrik Wolff, of the University of Washington, co- authored a paper that studied Australian power-use data when parts of the country extended daylight saving time for the 2000 Sydney Olympics and others did not. The researchers found that the practice reduced lighting and electricity consumption in the evening but increased energy use in the now dark mornings-- wiping out the evening gains. That's because the extra hour that daylight saving time adds in the evening is a hotter hour. "So if people get home an hour earlier in a wanner house, they turn on their air conditioning," the University of Washington's Wolff said.
E. But other studies do show energy gains. In an October 2008 daylight saving time report to Congress, mandated by the same 2005 energy act that extended daylight saving time, the U.S. Department of Energy asserted that springing forward does save energy. Extended daylight saving time saved 1.3 terawatt ( 太瓦 ) hours of electricity. That figure suggests that daylight saving time reduces annual U.S. electricity consumption by 0.03 percent and overall energy consumption by 0.02 percent. While those percentages seem small, they could represent significant savings because of the nation's enormous total energy use.
F.What's more, savings in some regions are apparently greater than in others. California, for instance, appears to benefit most from daylight saving time--perhaps because its relatively mild weather encourages people to stay outdoors later. The Energy Department report found that daylight saving time resulted in an energy savings of one percent daily in the state.
G.But Wolff, one of many scholars who contributed to the federal report, suggested that the numbers were subject to statistical variability ( 变化) and shouldn't be taken as hard facts. And daylight savings' energy gains in the U.S. largely depend on your location in relation to the Mason-Dixon Line, Wolff said."The North might be a slight winner, because the North doesn't have as much air conditioning," he said. "But the South is a definite loser in terms of energy consumption. The South has more energy consumption under daylight saving."
Daylight Saving Time: Healthy or Harmful?
H. For decades advocates of daylight savings have argued that, energy savings or no, daylight saving time boosts health by encouraging active lifestyles--a claim Wolff and colleagues are currently putting to the test. "In a nationwide American time-use study, we're clearly seeing that, at the time of daylight saving time extension in the spring, television watching is substantially reduced and outdoor behaviors like jogging, walking, or going to the park are substantially increased," Wolff said. "That's remarkable, because of course the total amount of daylight in a given day is the same. "
I.But others warn of ill effects. Till Roenneberg, a university professor in Munich (慕尼黑), Germany, said his studies show that our circadian (生理节奏的 ) body clocks--set by light and darkness--never adjust to gaining an "extra" hour of sunlight to the end of the day during daylight saving time.
J.One reason so many people in the developed world are chronically (长期地) overtired, he said, is that they suffer from"social jet lag. "In other words, their optimal circadian sleep periods don't accord with their actual sleep schedules. Shifting daylight from morning to evening only increases this lag, he said. "Light doesn't do the same things to the body in the morning and the evening. More light in the morning would advance the body clock, and that would be good. But more light in the evening would even further delay the body clock. "
K.Other research hints at even more serious health risks. A 2008 study concluded that, at least in Sweden, heart attack risks go up in the days just after the spring time change. "The most likely explanation to our findings is disturbed sleep and disruption of biological rhythms," One expert told National Geographic News via email.
Daylight Savings' Lovers and Haters
L. With verdicts (定论) on the benefits, or costs, of daylight savings so split, it may be no surprise that the yearly time changes inspire polarized reactions. In the U.K., for instance, the Lighter Later movement--part of 10:10,a group advocating cutting carbon emissions--argues for a sort of extreme daylight savings. First, they say,move standard time forward an hour, then keep observing daylight saving time as usual--adding two hours ofevening daylight to what we currently consider standard time. The folks behind Standardtime.com, on the other hand, want to abolish daylight saving time altogether, calling energy-efficiency claims "unproven. "
M. National telephone surveys by Rasmussen Reports from spring 2010 and fall 2009 deliver the same answer.Most people just "don't think the time change is worth the hassle (麻烦的事 ). " Forty-seven percent agreedwith that statement, while only 40 percent disagreed. But Seize the Daylight author David Prerau said his research on daylight saving time suggests most people are fond of it."I think if you ask most people if they enjoy having an extra hour of daylight in the evening eight months a year, the response would be pretty positive."
Daylight savings' energy gains might be various due to different climates.


4、根据材料,回答题
Facebook Moms
A. Kimberly Gervaise, a stay-at-home mother of three in Little Silver, N.J., joined Facebook five years ago and only posts every couple of months, mostly sharing photos from special events, like birthdays. She has 393 friends, and wishes some of them would tuck it in (收敛) a bit. "I get a little annoyed about people who feel the need to post a picture of a straight-A report card--and there are many," she says. "I am sure that most of the time, they are just proud, but I find it annoying." ~
B. Gervaise says more and more mothers are using Facebook as a platform to boast about their lives, their kids, their parenting techniques. And that's making it harder and harder for morns like her to log on without getting slapped in the face. Bragging about your kids is nothing new, but before Facebook, the Compare & Contrast game was mostly played at the playground or the preschool parking lot. Morns would stand around discreetly scrutinizing kids to see who was hitting milestones faster or slower than their own children. Now it's going on all day, every day, in a vast electronic sandbox.
C. Facebook morns are constantly bombarded with updates about their friends' kids and their accomplishments. Daily, hourly even. According to Edison Research's Moms and Media 2013 report, 57% of morns on Facebook are over 35--these women are the first generation to have raised their children entirely in the Facebook era. They started out single, gossiping and posting party photos and flirting, and now they're changing diapers, worrying about peanut allergies and diligently navigating the sometimes treacherous mommy waters. And if they're active on Facebook, they're learning in front of a huge, rapt audience.
D. Mothers are heavy Facebook users. Edison's 2013 research reveals that 7 out of 10 moms have a profile, and there are more than 1,000 mommy groups, public and private. These groups range in size from hundreds of members to tens of thousands, and they are discussing everything from potty training to gaming that private- school admissions test.
E.Of all the members on Facebook, moms check in the most(an average of 5.1 times a day, according to Edison), and they keep coming back, even if they are being battered with subtle--and sometimes not so subtle--"My kid's smarter/healthier/happier than yours" remarks. For the mom who barely gets her kids' shoes on before hustling them off to school, posts that portray the perfect family can stir up guilt or even self-loathing( 自我厌恶 ). "Who has time to draw pictures with children? Who has time to clean up the giant mess?" says Meredith DePersia, a working mother of two in San Francisco. "When I see these posts, I definitely feel like a lazy person."
F.The great time-killer is now a massive ego-killer, and even a mommy-blogger with a huge following feels vulnerable."Facebook makes me feel bad," says Glennon Doyle Melton, who had a New York Times best- seller with Carry On, Warrior."No matter how satisfied I am with my life, career, family, social life, house, etc., as soon as I log on to Facebook and peek into others' lives, I immediately feel that unease caused by comparison."
G. This is turning many rooms off. "One thing that drove me crazy when my son was younger was moms posting about how well their baby slept," a morn from Texas recalls. "Our son was a pretty poor sleeper, and we spent so much of that first year utterly exhausted. So to be honest, when I would see a post gloating, ' X slept for six hours straight last night! ' I would immediately hide that person for a while because it would irritate me." An online media professional and mom of one from Falls Church, Va., is so fired of playing the game. "I kind of avoid Facebook entirely," she says, "because I'm sick of everyone's presentation of perfection."
H. There is nothing in the Facebook rules that requires complete honesty and total disclosure, and it is human nature to portray the best version of one's life. From carefully presenting our vacation pictures to sharing perfectly posed first-day-of-school photos, all of us, not just moms, try to portray a problem-free, fun-filled, blissful life. And that can be pretty annoying if you've just spent the morning watching your 4-year-old repaint your kitchen walls with oatmeal( 麦片粥).
I."An acquaintance posted a drawing her daughter had made, and it was so perfect. Way more than my son could do, even though he is the same age," says a teacher and mother from Texas."I panicked for a minute, but talked myself down. If someone is posting positive, cheerful, perfect things all the time, I always think: Nope. Not buying it. No one's life is that perfect."
J.Part of the problem is that this isn't happening in real time, face to face. That means moms who might not mean to offend are missing the social cues that normally put a damper on excessive crowing. "Social networks like Facebook haven't changed the way people respond to bragging; they've changed how much people brag," says Dr. Pamela Rutledge, director of the Media Psychology Research Center. "The ability to publicize so much has blurred the line between sharing and boasting. When you brag in a group, you. notice when they wander away. When you brag on Facebook, it's harder to tell who you're alienating."
K. Dr. Saedi, author of the blog Millennial Media, thinks it's important to keep it all in perspective. "Remember that, like TV, not everything you see on Facebook is true. No one's life is perfect. And the more that people try to prove how great it is, the more it's often a sign that it's not. It's important for rooms on Facebook to take a step back, get some distance and reassess."
L.Many feeling-smothered mothers don't want to "step back"; they want to escape, to be free. "I deleted my Facebook account!" crows a stay-at-home mom of two in Austin, Texas. "I hated the'Keeping up with the Joneses' behavior that Facebook engenders." Not everyone is ready--or able---to completely cut the Facebook umbilical cord(脐带). One mom decided she just needed to take control of her page, and silence the braggers and know-everythings. "I cleaned house a year ago and only connect with people I'm actually friends or family with," she says. "I found that I'd catch up on Facebook and be bad-tempered after, so I changed my profile to only let Facebook be what I want it to be."
M. Even mommy-blogger Melton took a Facebook vacation. For 40 days, the 101,000 followers of her Momastery website waited patiently as she took a rest. It was during this break that she realized how unhappy Facebook made her at times. "I called my younger sister the other day and said, 'I'm going to quit Facebook.
I don't use it right. Whether I want to or not, I just end up comparing myself to everyone else.' "
N. "And (my) sister said, 'Actually, you're using it for the exact thing it was originally designed for. Remember, some college guys made it so that students could compare women to each other and decide who was hotter.' " Melton ponders this for a moment. "And I thought, Ah. Right. Huh. The origin of Facebook is really annoying and offensive, when you think about it. And even more annoying is that we often still use it for what it was originally intended: comparison."
Comparison was the original function when people designed Facebook and the function has been in use since then.


5、听音频:
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A., B., C., and D ), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

A.Get a job on campus.
B.Take an electronics course.
C.Visit the electronics company.
D.Apply for a job in an electronics company.

简答题
6、 Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay commenting on whether a house or love is more important in marriage. You can cite examples to illustrate your point. You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.


7、Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay based on the picture below. You should start your essay with a brief description of the picture and then discuss what we should do to deal with the food safety problem. You should give sound arguments to support your views and write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.



8、随着中国日益成为韩国的重要贸易伙伴,两国的联系从外交和贸易延伸到了教育领域。中国是韩国的出口目的地,吸收了韩国约四分之一的出口产品,同时也吸引了韩国超过四分之一的留学生。虽然在美国留学的好处之一是可以练习英语(对找工作的人来说英语依然是重要的语言),但韩国雇主对有中国经历的毕业生的需求越来越大。比如三星集团(Sam Sung Group)两年前说,精通中文的求职者会得到额外的加分。


9、听材料,回答题
Growing numbers of bright students face missing out on their first choice university, academics warned today, as figures showed three-quarters of institutions are being forced to reduce places.
Almost 100 out of 130 universities in England could be forced to take fewer(26)__________this year,following the introduction of Coalition reforms designed to drive down (27) __________ fees.
Many members of the elite Russell Group are among those facing (28) __________, with Liverpool, Leeds,Manchester, Newcastle and Southampton being particularly (29)__________Data from the Government's Higher Education Funding Council for England suggests some newer universities such as Bedfordshire and East London are expecting tolose around one-in-eight places.
The cuts are being (30) __________ following the introduction of new roles that effectively (31) __________universities charging more than £7,500 in student fees from this autumn.
It means large numbers of places are being (32) __________ towards cheap further education colleges.
Ministers are also lifting controls on the number of bright students gaining at least two A grades and a B at A-level that universities can recruit--(33) __________an inevitable scramble towards a small number of top institutions.
The funding council's chief executive denied the loss of student places would tip any institution into significant financial trouble.
But Prof Michael Farthing, vice-chancellor of Sussex University and chairman of the 1994 Group, which represents many small research institutions, said the figures show that many excellent students will be denied places at their first choice universities.
"The number of students universities are allowed to recruit has been cut across the sector, with 20,000 places (34) __________to institutions with lower than average fees, "he said.
"Far from giving the best universities freedom to (35) __________ more students, this represents a push to a cut-price education."
__________


10、 __________


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