ASeveral months ago, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released astunning report on the impact of resistant bacteria. According to the analysis, whichCDC officials said was conservative, more than 2 million people are infected in theUnited States each year by bacteria that are resistant to a wide array of the safest andmost effective antibiotics. Of those, at least 23,000 die. The illnesses and deaths costsociety some $55 billion annually--S20 billion from additional health-care spendingand $35 billion from lost productivity. "If we are not careful, we will soon be in apost-antibiotic era," said Dr. Tom Frieden, the director of the CDC. "And for somepatients and for some microbes, we are already there."
B. Resistant bacteria spread not only with cross-contamination from people who arealready sick or unknowingly carrying the microbes; they also come from foodAmericans eat. Indeed, a current multistate outbreak of a multi-drug-resistant straincalled Salmonella Heidelberg (海德堡沙门氏菌) was traced to Foster Farms brandchicken. At present, the microbe had infected more than 300 people in 20 states andPuerto Rico; more than one third of them required hospitalization.
C. In the past, drug-resistant bacteria were relatively easy to confront, with pharma-ceutical ( 制药品 ) companies pumping out ever-more sophisticated antibiotics. BigPharma isn't investing much time or effort in these lines of treatment these days--why commit hundreds of millions of dollars to research and develop a new antibioticthat will only be taken by a patient for a few days, when a breakthrough drug for, say,diabetes could be both unique and used by people for a lifetime?
D. "We have an increasing antimicrobial resistance across the world and we have adecreasing pipeline of new antibiotics," said Dr. Ed Septimus, a professor of internalmedicine at Texas A&M Health Science Center and Medical Director for the InfectionPrevention and Epidemiology Clinical Services Group at HCA Healthcare System. "Itis a perfect storm in which, for some patients, it will feel like we are going back to the pre-antibiotic era." What would it be like living in a world without antibiotics? You can say goodbye to many lifesaving procedures we now consider commonplace.
E.Take heart transplants--they can be performed only because surgeons are confident the antibiotics they give patients before the procedure will prevent a postoperative infection. The same holds true for other complex surgeries. Chemotherapy (化疗) severely inhibits the immune system, which is why chemo patients require antibiotics. "So many of these medical miracles that we take for granted are only possible because we have been able to deal with infectious complications," said Ruth Lynfield, the state epidemiologist ( 流行病专家 ) and medical director at the Minnesota Department of Health. "If we can't do that, those areas of medicine--surgery, transplants, intensive care, neonatal (新生儿 ) care——could be lost."
F.And it could be even worse. Several medical experts noted that while a virus causedthe influenza pandemic of 1918, most of the tens of millions of people who perished from the disease died of a bacterial infection in the lungs. With effective antibiotics, that complication can be treated. Given the scarcity of viral vaccines in much of the world, if a resistant bacteria takes hold, all anyone could do is find an effective way to dispose of the bodies. Given the stakes, it is astonishing to realize the causes of this threat are well-understood and the ways to attack it well-known. Even as far back as 1945, Alexander Fleming, a pioneer in antibiotics, said, "the misuse of penicillin( 青霉素 ) could be the propagation of mutant ( 突变) forms of bacteria that would resist the new miracle drug."
G. In essence, this crisis is looming because the world consumes too many antibiotics. In the United States, doctors prescribe them too often, many times because patients demand them for illnesses that are not bacterial and thus cannot be treated with antibiotics, such as colds and other sicknesses caused by viruses. The CDC found that the greatest use of antibiotics for humans occurs in the Southern states, a fact that medical experts struggle to explain. One thing the data and studies indicate, though, is that the areas with the highest use are most likely to experience the most resistant bacteria.
H.But the amount of antibiotics used humans for medical purposes pales in comparison to the quantities fed to American livestock--pigs, cattle, and the like. According to the Food and Drug Administration, about 80 percent of all antibiotics sold in 2011 were used on animals, primarily for spurting growth.
I.What makes the use of antibiotics for growth in meat and poultry ( 家禽 ) productionparticularly troublesome, experts say, is the low dosages. Using small amounts of antibiotics is more likely to create resistant bugs, the experts said, because the microbes are not wiped out. Instead, the bacteria are essentially trained to resist thedrugs. "It creates a reservoir of drug-resistant genes," said Dr. Henry Chambers, aprofessor of medicine at University of California San Francisco.
J.Antibiotics are also used for animals in the United States as aprophylactic ( 预防药品 ),to prevent infections likely to spread because of the meat and poultry productionprocess. These so-called "production diseases" are the result of a system which placesever larger numbers of animals into ever smaller containment areas, exposing them toeach other's feces, urine and--as a result--bacteria. "We need to change the animalproduction system, where animals are healthier and infections become the exceptionand not the norm," said Dr. Lance Price, a professor at the George WashingtonUniversity School of Public Health and Health Services who specializes in studyingresistant bacteria. "We should prevent infections in animals by not overcrowdingthem, not packing them in together and not exposing them to easy contamination."
K. The connection between antibiotic usage in animals and the development of resistantbacteria has long been recognized in Europe, which banned the use of the drugs asgrowth promoters in 2006. In the United States, the FDA only imposed voluntaryrestrictions in 2012, which, experts said, seems to have done little to decrease usageof antibiotics for livestock. "When you compare our use of antibiotics for animals towhat they're seeing in Europe," said Lynfield, "we are not doing well."
L. Despite the magnitude of the risk, many basic strategies for containing and identifyingthreats have not been adopted. For example, there is no comprehensive international surveillance of threats from antibiotic resistance; identification only occurs with the appearance of an outbreak rather than through examination of strains. According to the CDC, there is no systematic collection of detailed information about the use of antibiotics either in human health care or in agriculture in the United States. Without the ability to track, isolate and identify these pathogens (病原体 ) , the both state and government health officials are unable to act until people start showing serious signs of illness or dying.
M. Medical experts agree that the use of antibiotics to spur growth in animals or to prevent disease caused by processing techniques has to stop. They also say that up to half of the usage of antibiotics by humans is unnecessary. Programs to engage in what is known as "antibiotic stewardship"--training physicians on the proper uses of the drugs and even limiting the ability of doctors in hospitals who are untrained in infectious diseases to prescribe antibiotics--have begun to be implemented, although they are not yet widespread. Since large pharmaceutical companies have little economic incentive to develop antibiotics, the experts say, government has to step up, funding basic research into new treatments that would cut the cost for the development and sale of new drugs.
N. The hardest step could be restraining the international use of antibiotics. Many resistant strains are emerging in India and Southeast Asia, where antibiotics can be purchased without a prescription, according to Dr. Trevor Van Schooneveld, medical director of the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program at the University of
Nebraska Medical Center. The resistant strains that emerge in those locations easilyspread around the world; for instance, a resistant bacterium that causes urinary tractinfections emerged not long ago in New Delhi; it is now being found in the UnitedStates.
O.The failure to pursue these solutions have left infectious-disease specialists frustratedas they see the world moving further and further away from the promise offered somany decades ago by antibiotics. Governments, they fear, may not act forcefully untilthe problem becomes overwhelming. "We may have to wait until the deaths of somereally prominent and previously healthy people," said Relman. "It might be that onlyby shocking the public will we be able to have the world take this threat seriously."
Production diseases arise when too many animals are confined in small living space.
A．They might be stolen goods.
B．They might be fake products.
C．They might be faulty products.
D．They might be smuggled goods.
Questionsare based on the following passage.
Texting has long been bemoaned (哀叹) as the downfall of the written word, "penmanship for illiterates," as one critic called it. To which the proper response is LOL. Texting properly isn't writing at all. It's a "spoken" language that is getting richer and more complex by the year.
First, some historical perspective. Writing was only invented 5500 years ago, whereas language probably traces back at least 80000 years. Thus talking came first; writing is just a craft that came along later. As such, the first writing was based on the way people talk, with short sentences. However, while talking is largely subconscious and rapid, writing is deliberate and slow. Over time, writers took advantage of this and started crafting long-winded sentences such as this one: "The whole engagement lasted above12 hours, till the gradual retreat of the Persians was changed into a disorderly flight, of which the shameful example was given by the principal leaders and..."
No one talks like that casually-or should. But it is natural to desire to do so for special occasions. In the old days, we didn't much write like talking because there was no mechanism to reproduce the speed of conversation. But texting and instant messaging do-and a revolution has begun. It involves the crude mechanics of writing, but in its economy, spontaneity and even vulgarity, texting is actually a new kind of talking, with its own kind of grammar and conventions.
Take LOL. It doesn't actually mean "laughing out loud" in a literal sense anymore. LOL has evolved into something much subtler and sophisticated and is used even when nothing is remotely amusing. Jocelyn texts "Where have you been?" and Annabelle texts back "LOL at the library studying for two hours." LOL signals basic empathy (同感) between texters, easing tension and creating a sense of equality. Instead of having a literal meaning, it does something-conveying an attitude-just like the -ed ending conveys past tense rather than "meaning" anything. LOL, of all things, is grammar.
Of course no one thinks about that consciously. But then most of communication operates without being noticed. Over time, the meaning of a word or an expression drifts-meat used to mean any kind of food, silly used to mean, believe it or not, blessed.
Civilization, then, is fine-people banging away on their smart phones are fluently using a codeseparate from the one they use in actual writing, and there is no evidence that texting is ruining composition skills. Worldwide people speak differently from the way they write, and texting-quick, casual and only intended to be read once is actually a way of talking with your fingers.
What do critics say about texting?
A．It is mainly confined to youngsters.
B．It competes with traditional writing.
C．It will ruin the written language.
D．It is often hard to understand.
Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.
For investors who desire low risk and guaranteed income, US government bonds are a secure investment because these bonds have the financial backing and full faith and credit of the federal government. Municipal bonds, also secure, are offered by local governments and often have____ 36 ___such as tax-free interest. Some may even be____ 37___. Corporate bonds are a bit more risky.
Two questions often ____38 ___first-time corporate bond investors. The first is "If I purchase acorporate bond, do I have to hold it until the maturity date?" The answer is no. Bonds are bought and sold daily on ____39 ___securities exchanges. However, if you decide to sell your bond before its maturity date, you're not guaranteed to get the face value of the bond. For example, if your bond does not have____ 40 ___that make it attractive to other investors, you may be forced to sell your bond at a____ 41 ___,i.e., a price less than the bond's face value. But if your bond is highly valued by other investors, you maybe able to sell it at a premium, i. e., a price above its face value. Bond prices generally ____42 ___inversely (相反地) with current market interest rates. As interest rates go up, bond prices fall, and viceversa (反之亦然). Thus, like all investments, bonds have a degree of risk.
The second question is "How can I ____43 ___the investment risk of a particular bond issue?" Standard & Poor's and Moody's Investors Service rate the level of risk of many corporate and government bonds. And____ 44 ___, the higher the market risk of a bond, the higher the interest rate. Investors will invest in a bond considered risky only if the ____45 ___return is high enough.
5、Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.
It was 10 years ago, on a warm July night, that a newborn lamb took her first breath in a small shed in Scotland. From the outside, she looked no different from thousands of other sheep born on ____36___farms. But Dolly, as the world soon came to realize, was no ____37___lamb. She was cloned from a single cell of an adult female sheep,____38___long-held scientific dogma that had declared such a thing biologically impossible.
A decade later, scientists are starting to come to grips with just how different Dolly was. Dozens of animals have been cloned since that first lamb mice, cats, cows and, most recently, a dog-and it's becoming ____39___clear that they are all, in one way or another, defective.
It's ____40___to think of clones as perfect carbon copies of the original. It turns out, though, that there are various degrees of genetic____41___. That may come as a shock to people who have paid thousands of dollars to clone a pet cat only to discover that the baby cat looks and behaves ____42___liketheir beloved pet--with a different-color coat of fur, perhaps, or a ____43___different attitude toward its human hosts.
And these are just the obvious differences. Not only are clones ____44___from the original template(模板) by time, but they are also the product of an unnatural molecular mechanism that turns out not to be very good at making ____45___copies. In fact, the process can embed small flaws in the genes of clones that scientists are only now discovering
6、 Many charter high schools in New Orleans are to help students enter college, which is supported by government policy and attracts funds.
Last year, researchers published new findings from the Women's Health Initiative, a long-term study of more than 160000midlife women. The data showed that multivitamin-takers are no（26）than those who don't take the pills, at least when it comes to the big diseases--cancer, heart disease, and（27） "Even women with poor diets weren't helped by taking amultivitamin," says the study author Marian Neuhouser, PhD, in the cancer（28）program at the Fred Hutchinson CancerResearch Center, in Seattle. Vitamin（29）came into fashion in the early 1900s, when it was difficult or impossible for most people to get a wide variety of fresh fruits and vegetables. Back then, vitamin-deficiency diseases weren't unheard-of: the bowed legs and（30）ribs caused by a severe shortage of vitamin D, or the skin problems and mental confusion caused by a lack of vitamin B, But these days, you're（31）unlikely to be seriously deficient if you eat an average diet, if only because many packaged foods are vitamin-enriched. Sure, most of us could do with a couple more daily（32）of produce, but a multivitamin doesn't do a good job at（33）those. "Multivitamins have maybe two dozen（34）but plans,s have hundreds of other useful compounds,"Neuhouser says. "If you just take a multivitamin, you're missing lots of compounds that may be providing benefits. " There is onegroup that probably ought to keep taking a multivitamin: women of reproductive age. The supplement is insurance（35）pregnancy.
8、Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic, Should Class At-tendance Be Optional．Write your essay on Answer Sheet 1．You should write at least 150words but no more than200words according to the outline given below in Chinese..