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2016年英语六级考试每日一练(1月8日)

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1、 Questions are based on the following passage.
In the 1960s and 1970s, classic social psychological studies were conducted thatprovided evidence that even normal, decent people can engage in acts of extreme crueltywhen instructed to do so by others. However, in an essay published November 20 in theopen access journal PLOS Biology, Professors Alex Haslam and Stephen Reicher revisitthese studies' conclusions and explain how awful acts involve not just obedience, butenthusiasm too---challenging the long-held belief that human beings are "programmed"for conformity.
This belief can be traced back to two landmark empirical research ( 实证研究 )programs conducted by Stanley Milgram and Philip Zimbardo in the 1960s and early1970s. Milgram's "Obedience to Authority" research is widely believed to show thatpeople blindly conform to the instructions of an authority figure, and Zimbardo'sStanfordPrison Experiment (SPE) is commonly understood to show that people will take onabusive roles uncritically.
However, Professor Haslam, from the University of Queensland, argues that tyrannydoes not result from blind conformity to rules and roles. Rather, it is a creative act offollowership, resulting from identifying with authorities who represent vicious (恶意的 )acts as virtuous ( 善良的 ) .
"Decent people participate in horrific acts not because they become passive,mindless functionaries (公职人员 ) who do not know what they are doing, but ratherbecause they come to believe--typically under the influence of those in authority--thatwhat they are doing is right," Professor Haslam explained.
Professor Reicher, of the University of St Andrews, added that it is not that theywere blind to the evil acts they were committing, but rather that they knew what they weredoing, and believed it to be right.
These conclusions were partly informed by Professors Haslam and Reicher's ownprison experiment, conducted in 2002 in collaboration with the BBC. The study generatedthree findings. First, participants did not conform automatically to their assigned role;second, they only acted in terms of group membership to the extent that they identifiedwith the group; and finally, group identity did not mean that people simply accepted theirassigned position--it also empowered them to resist it.
Although Zimbardo and Milgram's findings remain highly influential, ProfessorHaslam argues that their conclusions do not hold up well under close empirical scrutiny.
Professor Reicher concludes that tyranny does not flourish because offendersare helpless and ignorant; it flourishes because they are convinced that they are doingsomething worthy.
What does the author mean by saying "human beings are 'programmed'for conformity" (Line 6, Para. I)?
A.Human beings are designed to defy the instructions of others.
B.Human beings are forced to listen to the advice of others.
C.Human beings are ordered to take advice of others.
D.Human beings are made to be obedient to others.

2、
A. For a brief period, the popular image of the university student was embodied bySebastian of Brideshead Revisited: 18-years old, male, privileged, and ready to spendthree years in one of the world's most elite institutions. But the idea of a typicalstudent no longer holds: today's students are just as likely to be female, or older, orfrom overseas, or studying part-time while holding down a full-time job.
B. Traditional models of provision ( 供给 ) no longer work for these students. But howcan universities adapt to meet their need--and the needs of the modern globaleconomy? Conditions of Flexibility, published by Professor Ron Barnett, looks athow universities can offer more flexible structures and the conditions under whichflexibility can flourish. Using the report as a starting point, a recent Guardianroundtable ( 圆桌会议 ) sponsored by the Higher Education Academy broughttogether a group of experts and senior managers in higher education to discuss thefuture of flexible learning.
Integrity
C.The roundtable heard that flexibility is an essential part of a modem higher educationsystem. "The 21 st century is calling for new kinds of persons, who can adapt andrespond flexibly to the extraordinary challenges we see day in and day out," said oneparticipant. The challenge is how to meet the needs of those students without losinginternal integrity, he argued. Many universities are working hard to develop flexibleapproaches that match students to the employment needs of the economy. Oneparticipant described how her university works with local employers to create tailoredprogrammes for individuals. "Students will come in to talk about their aspirations,their past experiences, their qualifications, their jobs, and a customized opportunity will be created for them, which will pick up modules ( 模块 ) and put them into a special package for that individual student," she said.
D.While universities are encouraged to think in a more focused fashion about the specific requirements of the workplace, many also want to equip students with a broader range of skills that enable them to adapt to the demands of a rapidly changing world. Some degree programmes are moving away from the traditional modular ( 模 块的,分单元的 ) approach--where undergraduates might take 10 short modules a year--to a system of longer courses. One participant said that her institution has built flexibility into this new model: "A student might be asked to undertake a particular activity designed to develop a particular aspect of their skills--maybe their critical thinking or their employability skills--but they can choose where they do it withinthe framework of their discipline." An immunology ( 免疫学 ) student, for example,could choose to apply their skills to HIV/Aids or heart disease.
E.Flexibility is also being introduced into assessment. At one university, students on aparticular master's programme take five modules, each of which can be assessed infive different ways and students choose which assessment method they prefer for eachmodule.
F. Another participant described the experimental introduction in one degree course ofan option that enables students to study the same module twice, "in order to learn betteror differently than they did the first time", with students being assessed separatelyeach time. The roundtable also heard about the role technology can play in providingstudents with greater flexibility in how they learn. One participant talked about hisuniversity's use of"lecture capture"--recording lectures so that students could watchthem again, an innovation that has been embraced with enthusiasm by both staff andstudents. Other participants argued for a move away from the didactic (说教的 )approach of the 50-minute lecture altogether, and in favor of more active methodsof teaching. One spoke of a master's course in which psychology students learningto be expert witnesses worked with law students and computer science students on asimulated criminal trial of a murder case. "It ended up being an incredibly rich multi-professional experience that mimic ( 模仿 ) the real world," she said.
G. Perhaps one of the biggest flexible learning innovations has been the introduction ofmassive open online courses (Moocs), which enable students to study university-level courses at a distance and for free, using Internet-based resources. Advocates believe that Moocs are democratic, opening higher education up to people who would not normally be able to access it. Roundtable participants were largely skeptical about the disruptive ( 引起混乱的 ) potential of Moocs, with one arguing that "most of the people who participate in Moocs are PhDs or academics. There are huge levels of dropout, and the quality is pretty poor."
H. What are the challenges to providing more flexible learning in higher education? Some participants felt that students are not ready to learn flexibly, and prefer a traditional model of teaching through lectures and assessment through essays and exams. One argued that many students are unused to choice: "When they arrive as undergraduates, they're so used to being told exactly what to do and how they'll be examined that when we get them into university and give them more choices, they don't know what to choose." Students' reluctance to embrace innovation means that universities should take care when introducing flexibility, one participant argued: "We've got a responsibility to try to make sure we structure learning in such a way that students are encouraged to explore outside their comfort zone and engagein different learning approaches, but are unable to default to the lowest commondenominator."
Quality Assurance Agency
I. Some academics too are cautious about adopting flexible learning methods, theroundtable heard. The Quality Assurance Agency (QAA), a regulatory body thatmonitors standards in higher education, publishes standard statements: a set ofguidelines for what students should be taught in each subject.
J.One participant said: "There is a risk aversion around quality and standards becausestaffs are terribly nervous about getting a poor QAA rating. Perhaps they see standardstatements as being gospel ( 真理 ) , and they have to deliver to those benchmarkstatements rather than considering threshold concepts and letting students just explorebetween them."
K. Although universities are working hard to develop flexible provision, someparticipants acknowledged that, both in the structure of courses offered and inmethods of teaching and learning, progress is patchy (参差不齐的) . "This sortof exciting innovative activity is going on only in part of the university, not acrossthe institution," said one. "The challenge for university management is the day-to- day pressures of resource management, and time to balance the budget with this innovative way of working."
L.But it was acknowledged that universities, despite the best of intentions, operate under external constraints. Progress has been slow in the area of student mobility, for example. Increasingly, said one participant, universities must recognize "the desire of students to be mobile on the international stage and to take a great number of credits in different countries and to get work experience in those different settings but still wanting to get a degree that puts that all together."
M. There is a tension, one participant pointed out, between "good words and actual policy". While successive governments have talked about the importance of increasing flexibility and being employer-led, they operate "a funding and policy model which goes back to thinking about 18-year-olds doing three-year degree programmes and going on to a master's if they want." Until governments catch up with the realities of the new higher education landscape, universities may find it hard to provide the flexibility students and employers need.
It will not be easy for colleges to provide flexibility for students and employers until governments realize the situation of new higher education.

3、 
A. 12th-grader wrote a college admissions essay about wanting to pursue a career in oceanography. Let's call her Isabella. A few months ago, we edited it in my classroomduring lunch. The writing was good, but plenty of 17-year-old's fantasies aboutswimming with whales. Her essay was distinctive for another reason: Her career goalswere not the highlight of the essay. They were just a means of framing her statementof purpose, something surprisingly few personal statements actually get around tomaking.
B.The essay's core concerned the rhetoric ( 花言巧语 ) that educators had used tomotivate her and her peers--other minority students from low-income communities.She'd been encouraged to think of college foremost as a path to socio-economicmobility. Since elementary school, teachers had rhapsodized ( 写狂想曲 ) about theopportunities that four years of higher education could unlock. Administrators hadrepeatedly mentioned statistics about the gulf in earnings between college graduatesand those with only high-school diplomas. She'd been told to think about her family,their hopes for her, what they hadn't had and what she could have if she remaineddiligent. She'd been promised that good grades and a ticket to a good college wouldlead to a good job, one that would guarantee her financial independence and enableher to give back to those hard-working people who had placed their faith in her.
C.Thankfully, Isabella condemned this characterization as shortsighted and simplistic.My guess is that only students like her ever have to hear it.
D.The black and Latino kids I teach live in Inglewood and West Adams in Los Angeles.Their parents are house-cleaners, truck drivers, and non-union carpenters. Whenadministrators, counselors, and teachers repeat again and again that a college degreewill alleviate economic hardship, they don't mean to suggest that there is no otherpoint to higher education. Yet by focusing on this one potential benefit, educatorsrisk distracting them from the others, emphasizing the value of the fruits of theiracademic labor and skipping past the importance of the labor itself. The message isthat intellectual curiosity plays second fiddle to ( 居次位 ) financial security.
E.While Isabella's essay acknowledged her lack of economic advantages and portrayedwith sensitivity her parents' struggles, she was eager to focus first on nurturing herintellectual passion. She detailed how her curiosity about sea urchins ( 海单 )and other marine life had led to a passion she wants to sustain through college anda subsequent career. College will ferry her to her intellectual destiny, not afinancial windfall ( 意外之财 ) She'll make her life's work what she wants to do,not just what she is able to do.
F. My students are understandably preoccupied with money. They don't have the privilege to not worry about it. They fantasize about what their future wealth will permit them to enjoy. They dream about specific models of cars in certain colors andhuge houses in particular neighborhoods and ample meals at their favorite restaurantsany time they wish. Many rejoiced over the East Coast liberal arts colleges they visiton the special trips that my school is thoughtful enough to arrange. Colleges likeSwarthmore and Haverford fly students like Isabella out during college applicationseason. A few are accepted but most attend state schools, which, especially inCalifornia, can provide excellent educational opportunities. The irony, though, isthat many of these students aspire to go to a liberal-arts school but don't necessarilyunderstand its significance. They're drawn to sleepy quads (四方院长 ) , weatheredbrick, and cascading ivy, but they are resolutely pre-professional in spirit,
G.In contrast, at the private school I attended for the last two years of high school, myclassmates thought about what they wanted to learn in college, not only what theywanted to become. Some knew medical or law school loomed in the future, but theythought about the work in a different way. My privileged classmates enjoyed money,from what I could tell. A few were keen on their cars and clothes, but most appearedto take it for granted. They didn't talk about it. Instead, a future doctor talked aboutworking at the CDC to fight public health epidemics. A future lawyer envisionedstarting a defense firm to provide a service to the hometown community. Most of uswanted to do something special.
H. My students' fantasies of the actual work they'd do in a well-paid professionalcapacity are vague by comparison--practicing law without knowing the differencebetween civil and criminal litigation or how to prepare for law school, doing businesswithout an understanding of the concrete details of entrepreneurship. While thevagueness stems from the lack of models in their communities, it also comes from thelack of imagination with which mentors have addressed their professed college plans.
Students hear that being a doctor is great because doctors can make money, enjoyrespect, and have a great life. They don't hear that being a doctor is great becausedoctors possess the expertise to do great things.
I.The rhetoric echoes the oft-cited work of Jean Anyon, an education researcher whodied in September 2014. Studying elementary schools, Anyon looked at how schoolscan condition kids for positions in life. She saw that schools teaching the children ofaffluent families prepared those kids to take on leadership roles and nurtured theircapacity for confident self-expression and argument. Schools teaching children fromlow-income families focused on keeping students busy and managing behavior.A middle-class school deemphasized individual expression and in-depth analysisand rewarded the dutiful completion of specified memorizing tasks. In each case,according to Anyon, a "hidden curriculum" has prepared students for a future rolein society. Some students learn to take orders and others learn to chart a course ofaction and delegate responsibility. School can either remain inequity through socialreproduction or have a transformative effect and help students transcend ( 超越) it.
 J. The rhetoric Isabella has heard about the purpose of college has a hidden messageas well. When school environments casually yet consistently deemphasize theintellectual benefits of higher education, students become less imaginative about theirfutures. According to ACT's College Choice Report from November 2013,32 percentof students pick a college major that doesn't really interest them. The same studysuggests that students are less likely to graduate when they do this. As high schooleducators know, good students have less trouble getting into selective schools thanthey do graduating from them--especially first-generation minority college studentslike Isabella and her classmates,
K.College should be "sold" to all students as an opportunity to experience an intellectualawakening. All students should learn that privilege is connected to the pursuit ofpassions. People are privileged to follow their hearts in life, to spend their timecrafting an identity instead of simply surviving. Access to higher education meansthat your values and interests can govern your choices. It makes sense that privileged18-year-olds who have already learned that lesson are attracted to liberal-arts colleges.I would prefer not to live in a country in which rhetoric about the purpose of collegeurges kids from privileged backgrounds to be innovators and creators while thepoor kids who do very well in school are taught to be educated, capable employees.
Isabella figured it out on her own---much as she's managed to ace her classes withoutacademic help outside of school. To achieve this goal more broadly, though, we needto forwardly teach our most marginalized students that cultivating an intellectuallycurious frame of mind is as essential to leading an invigorating working life asambition and work ethic.
Anyon found in her study that elementary schools tend to lead students to get readyfor a certain future.

4、Questions are based on the following passage.
It all started in 2009, with a seven-hour train trip from Oslo to Bergen. Bergensbanen,a live broadcast of the voyage by NRK, followed the train as it chugged ( 发出咔嚓声 )through dark tunnels, snow-covered mountains, and misty valleys.
Since then, "slow TV" has become a1Norwegian public broadcasting. In 2011,more than half the country watched a 2 ship's 134-hour journey up Norway's westcoast. Earlier this year, NRK broadcast 18 hours of salmon swimming upstream. Two newepics 3 this fall, one showing 100 hours of chess played by the Norwegian grandmaster Magnus Carlsen, and another offering a "sheep to sweater" view of4: fourhours of discussion followed by eight and a half hours of sheep-shaving, thread-spinning,and needle-clacla'ng ( 发出咔嗒声 ) .
Rather than complaining about the programs' long running times, Norwegians seemto 5 them. "They allow you to go far6, to enjoy more details," a viewer namedFinn Lunde told the German broadcaster Deutsche Welle.
The hosts of National Firewood Night, a 12-hour broadcast of 7 being cut andthen burned, invited viewers to submit advice via Facebook on how to 8 the wood.
"I couldn't go to bed because I was so excited," one commenter wrote on the Web site ofDagbladet, a Norwegian newspaper. "When will they add new logs?"
Slow TV reflects the 9 required to survive a long Norwegian winter, but alsoa hint of cultural 10. "All other TV is just speeding up, and we want to break withthat," Lise-May, who produced the knitting project, told Deutsche Welle. "We want toallow people to finish their sentences."
A.aired
B.broadcasting  
C.cruise   
D.deeper 
E.further
F.knitting
G.leading
H.logs
I.needling
J.patience
K.position
L.precisely
M.rebellion
N.relish
O.revolutionary
第1题应选(     )

5、听音频,回答下列题

A.Students from America.
B.Students from England.
C.Students from Australia.
D.Students from Japan.


6、 Questions are based on the passage you have just heard.
第22题答案为
A.Jefferson's views about commercialized agriculture.
B.International trade in the nineteenth century.
C.Improvements in farm machinery in the United States.
D.Farmers' loss of independence.


简答题
7、听音频,回答题
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the southern hemisphere. It comprises the mainland of theworld's smallest continent, the major island of Tasmania, and(26)other islands in theIndian and Pacific Oceans. And it alsohas many(27)countries.For around 40000 years before European settlement commenced in the late 18th century, the Australian mainland and Tasmania28around 250 individual nations of local Australians. After(29)visits by fishermen from the north, and Europeandiscovery by Dutch explorers in 1606, the eastern half of Australia was(30)by the British in 1770 and initially settled in thecolony of New South Wales, founded on 26 January,1788. The population grew(31)in the following years and the continentwas explored thoroughly. During the I9th century, another five largely self-governing Crown Colonies were(32)Since the six colonies became a federation and the Commonwealth of Australia was formed,Australia has(33)a stableliberal democratic political system and remains a Commonwealth realm. The population is just over 21.3 million, with about 60%(34)in and around the mainland state capitals of Sydney, Melbourne, etc.Technologically advanced and industrialized, Australia is a prosperous multicultural country and has good results in many(35)of national performance, such as health care, public education, economic freedom, and the protection of civil liberties and political rights.

第(26)题__________


8、听音频,回答下列题:
People do not analyze every problem they meet.Sometimes they try to remember a (26)___  from the last time they had a similar problem.They often accept the (27)___ or ideas of other people.
Other times they begin to act without thinking; they tryto find a solution by (28) __ and error.
However, when all these (29)  __ fail, the person with a problem has to start analyzing.There are six (30)  ___in analyzing a problem.
First, the person must (31)  ___that there is a problem.For example, Sam's bicycle is (32) __ ,and he cannot ride it to class as he usually does.Sam must see that there is a problem with his bicycle.Next, the thinker must (33) ___the problem.Before Sam can repair his bicycle, he must find the reason why it does not work.For instance, he must determine if the problem is with the gears, the brakes, or the frame.He must take his problem more specific.Now the person must look for information that will make the problem clearer and lead to possible solutions.For instance, suppose Sam decided that his bike does not work because there is something wrong with the gear wheels.At this time, he can look in his bicycle repair book and read about (34) ___ He can talk to his friends at the bike shop.He can look at his gears carefully.After studying the problem, he should have several suggestions for a possible so-
lution.Take Sam as an (35) ___His suggestions might be: put oil on the gear wheels; buy new gear wheels and replace the old ones; tighten or loosen the gear wheels.
第(26)题__________

9、反映在艺术和文学中的乡村生活理想是中国文明的重要特征。这在很大程度上归功于道家对自然的感情。传统中国画有两个受青睐的主题:一是家庭生活的各种幸福场景,画中往往有老人在下棋饮茶,男人在耕耘收割,妇女在织布缝衣,小孩在户外玩耍;另一个则是乡村生活的种种乐趣,画有渔夫在湖上打鱼,农夫在山上砍柴采药,或是书生坐在松树下吟诗作画。这两个主题可以分别代表儒家和道家的生活理想。

10、四合院
在中国各种不同的传统民居中,四合院(quadrangle)是典型和具代表性的一种建筑。其不论规模大小,都由四面房屋及其围合的庭院组成。坐北朝南的房屋称为正房(main house),东西两边的称为厢房(side house),南房称为倒座房(reversely-set house)。贵族或富有人家往往还有走廊把正房和厢房连接起来。四合院里的生活从容、宁静,却又其乐融融。四合院一定程度上体现着社会的等级(hierachical)秩序和家庭的尊卑观念。四合院历史悠久,蕴含着深刻的文内涵(connotation),是中国传统文化的载体。

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