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2015年英语四级考试每日一练(5月5日)

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单项选择题
1、 Questionsare based on the following passage.
A recent global survey of 2,000 high-net-worth individUalS found that 60% were not planning on a traditional retirement. Among US participants, 75% expected to continue working in some capacity even after stepping away from full-time jobs. "Manyof these people made their wealth by doing sometting they're passionate (有激情的) about,”.says Daniel Egan, head of behavioral finance for Barclays Wealth Americas.  " Given the.. choice,  they prefer to continue workirtg, "  Barclays calls these people"nevertirees."
Unlike many Americans compelled into early retirement by company restrictiolls, the average nevertiree often has no one forcing his hand. tf 106-year-old investor Irving Kahn, head of his own family firm, wants to keep coming to work every day, who's going to stop him? Seventy-eight-year-old Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's job security is guaranteed in the Constitution.
It may seem that these elderly people are trying to cheat death. In fact, they are. And it's working. Howard Friedman, a professor at UC Riverside, found in his research that those who work hardest and are successful in their careers often live the longest lives. "People are generally being given bad advice to slow down, take it easy, stop worrying, and retire to Florida,, he says. He described one study participant, still working at the age of 100, who was. recently disappointed to see his son retire.
"We're beginning to see a change in how people view retirement," says George LeeSon, codirector of the Institute of Population Ageing at Oxford. Where once ret~rement was seen as a brief reward after a long struggle through some miserable job, it is now akin (近似) to being cast aside, What Leeson terms "the Warren Buffett effect" is becoming more broadly appealing as individuals come to "view retirement as not simply being linked to economic productivity but also about contribution, "
Observers are split on whether this is a wholly good thing, On the one hand, companies and financial
firms can benefit from the wisdom of a resilient ( 坚韧的 ) chief, On the other, the new generation can find it more difficult to advance--an argument that typically holds little sway to a nevertiree.

What do we learn about the so-called "nevertiree$" ?
A.They are passionate about making a fortune.
B.They have no choice but to continue working.
C.They love what they do and choose not to retire.
D.They will not retire unless they are compelled to.


2、根据下列材料,请回答题:
Questions 36 to 45 are based Oil the following passage.
The concept of man versus machine is at least as old as the industrial revolution, but this phenomenon tends to be most acutely felt during economic downturns and slow recoveries. Since technology has such a big 36 for eating up human jobs, this phenomenon will continue to restructure our economy in ways we can't immediately foresee.
When there is exponential (指数的. 37 in the price and performance of technology, jobs that were once thought to be 38 from automation suddenly become threatened. This is a powerful argument, and a scary one. And yet, John Hagel, author of The Power of Pull and other books, says the argument misses the reason why these jobs are so vulnerable to technology in the first palce.
Hagel says we have designed jobs in the U.S. that tend to be tightly scripted and highly 39 ones that leave no room for individual initiative or creativity. In short, these are the types of jobs that machines can 40 much better than human beings. That is how we have put a giant 41 sign on the backs of
American workers.
It's time to 42 the formula for how work is conducted, since we are still relying on a very 20thcentury 43 of work, Hagel says. In our 44 changing economy, we more than ever need people in the workplace who can take initiative and exercise their imagination to respond to 45 events. That's not something machines are good at. They are designed to perform very predictable activities.

A.appetite
B.calculate
C.competition
D.distinct
E.exceedingly
F.immune
G.improvement
H.norm
I.notion
J.perform
K.rapidly
L.reinvent
M.standardized
N.target
O.unexpected
请回答(36)题__________.


3、根据材料,回答问题。
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived.
You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
Robot Management
A. Robots have been the stuff of science fiction for so long that it is surprisingly hard to see them as the stuff of management fact. A Czech playwright, Karel Capek, gave them their name in 1920 (from the Slavonic word for "work" ). An American writer, Isaac Asimov, confronted them with their most memorable dilemmas.
Hollywood turned them into superheroes and supervillains. When some film critics drew up lists of Hollywood's 50 greatest good guys and 50 greatest baddies, the only character to appear on both lists was a robot, the Terminator.
B. It is time for management thinkers to catch up with science-fiction writers. Robots have been doing auxiliary jobs on production lines since the 1960s. The world already has more than lm industrial robots. There is now an acceleration in the rates at which they are becoming both cleverer and cheaper: an explosive combination.
Robots are learning to interact with the world around them. Their ability to see things is getting ever closer to that of humans, as is their capacity to ingest information and act on it. Tomorrow's robots will increasingly take on delicate, complex tasks. And instead of being imprisoned in cages to stop them colliding with people, they will be free to wander.
C. America's armed forces have blazed a trail here. They now have no fewer than 12,000 robots serving in their ranks. Peter Singer, of the Brookings Institution, a think-tank (智囊团), says mankind's 5,000-year monopoly on the fighting of war is breaking down. Recent additions to the battlefield include tiny "insects" that perform reconnaissance (侦查) missions and giant "dogs" to terrify enemies. The Pentagon is also working on the EATR, a robot that fuels itself by eating whatever biomass (生物量) it finds around it.
D. But the civilian world cannot be far behind. Who better to clean sewers or suck up nuclear waste than these remarkable machines? The Japanese have made surprisingly little use of robots to clear up after the recent earthquake, given their world leadership in this area. They say that they had the wrong sort of robots in the wrong places. But they have issued a global call for robotic assistance and are likely to put more robots to work shortly.
E. As robots advance into the service industries they are starting to look less like machines and more like living creatures. The Paro (made by AIST, a Japanese research agency) is shaped like a baby seal and responds to attention. Honda's robot, ASIMO, is humanoid and can walk, talk and respond to commands.
F.Until now executives have largely ignored robots, regarding them as an engineering rather than a management problem. This cannot go on: robots are becoming too powerful and ubiquitous (无处不在的). Companies may need to rethink their strategies as they gain access to these new sorts of workers. Do they really need to outsource production to China, for example, when they have clever machines that work ceaselessly without pay? They certainly need to rethink their human-resources policies--starting by questioning whether they should have departments devoted to purely human resources.
G.The first issue is how to manage the robots themselves. Asimov laid down the basic rule in 1942: no robot should harm a human. This rule has been reinforced by recent technological improvements: robots are now much more sensitive to their surroundings and can be instructed to avoid hitting people. But the Pentagon's plans make all this a bit more complicated: many of its robots will be, in essence, killing machines.
H. A second question is how to manage the homo side of homo-robo relations. Workers have always worried that new technologies will take away their livelihoods, ever since the original Luddites' fears about mechanised looms. That worry takes on a particularly intense form when the machines come with a human face: Capek's play that gave robots their name depicted a world in which they initially brought lots of benefits but eventually led to mass unemployment and discontent. Now, the arrival of increasingly humanoid automatons in workplaces, in an era of high unemployment, is bound to provoke a reaction.
I.So, companies will need to work hard to persuade workers that robots are productivity-enhancers, not just job- eating aliens. They need to show employees that the robot sitting alongside them can be more of a helpmate than a threat. Audi has been particularly successful in introducing industrial robots because the carmaker asked workers to identify areas where robots could improve performance and then gave those workers jobs overseeing the robots. Employers also need to explain that robots can help preserve manufacturing jobs in the rich world: one reason why Germany has lost fewer such jobs than Britain is that it has five times as many robots for every 10,000 workers.
J.These two principles--don't let robots hurt or frighten people--are relatively simple. Robot scientists are tackling more complicated problems as robots become more sophisticated. They are keen to avoid hierarchies (层级) among rescue-robots (because the loss of the leader would render the rest redundant). So they are using game theory to make sure the robots can communicate with each other in egalitarian (平等) ways. They are keen to avoid duplication between robots and their human handlers. So they are producing more complicated mathematical formulae in order that robots can constantly adjust themselves to human intentions.
This suggests that the world could be on the verge of a great management revolution: making robots behave like humans rather than the 20th century's preferred option, making humans behave like robots.
Tomorrow's robots will be free to move around rather than being locked up in cages so as not to hurt people.


4、根据材料,回答问题。
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.

A.It helps the body to digest food.
B.It keeps milk fresh.
C.It helps the body to absorb calcium.
D.It prevents sunburn.


5、根据材料,回答问题。
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.

A.To show a videotape on survival in outer space.
B.To gain support for the space program.
C.To describe her experience on space missions.
D.To inform the audience about the space suit.


6、Passage Two
Quesaonsare based on thefollowingpassage
Energy independence.It has a nice ring to it,doesn’t it?If you think so,you’re not alone,because energy independence has been the dream of American presidents for decades,and never more so than in the past few years,when the most recent oil price shock has been partly responsible for kicking off the great recession.
“Energy independence”and its rhetorical(修辞的)companion“energy security”are,however’slippery concepts that are rarely thought through.What is it we want independence from,exactly?
Most people would probably say that they want to be independent from imported oil.But there are,reasons that we buy all that oil from elsewhere.
The first reason is that we need it to keep our economy nmning.Yes,there is a trickle(涓涓细流)of biofuel(生物燃料)availaB.e,and more may become available,but most biofuels cause economic waste and environmental destruction.
Second.Americans have basically decided that they don’t really want to produce all their own oil.They value the environmental  quality they preserve over their oil imports from abroad.Vast areas of the United States are off-limits to oil exploration and production in the name of environmental protection.To what extent are Americans really willing to endure the environmental impacts of domestic energy production in order to cut back imports?
Third,there are benefits to trade.It sllows for economic efficiency,and when we buy things from places that have lower production costs than we do,we benefit.And although you don’t read about this much,the United States is also a large exporter of oil products,selling about 2 million barrels ofpetroleum products per day to about 90 countries.
There is no question that the United States imports a great deal of energy.and,in fact,relies on that steady flow to maintain its economy.When that flow is interrupted,we feelthe pain in short supplies and higher prices.At the same time,we derive massive economic benefits when we buy the most afrordable energy on the world market and when we engage in energy trade around the world.
注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。
What does the author say about energy independence for America?
A.It sounds very attractive.
B.It ensures national security.
C.It will bring oil prices down.
D.It has long been everyone’s.dream.


7、 回答题
    They say that sticks and stones may break your bones,but words will never hurt you.Yet childhood bullying really can damage your long-term health.
    Gone are the days when bullying was considered an inevitable and ultimately harmless part of growing up—iust last month we learned that childhood bullying can lead to poorer mental health even into middle age.
    Now William Copeland at Duke University in Durham,North Carolina,and his colleagues have shown that it can have lingering physiological effects too.They tracked 1420 9-year-olds right through their teens.Each child was seen up to nine times during the study and quizzed about bullying.The team then measured levels of C-reactive protein in their blood.CRP is a marker of inflammation(炎症)linked to higher risk of cardiovascular disease (心血管疾病)and problems like diabetes.
    “Because we were collecting biological samples throughout,we were able to look at CRP levels in subjects prior to their bullying involvement.”says Copeland.“This really gives us an idea of the changes bullying brings about.”
    Although CRP levels naturally rise in everyone during adolescence,levels were highest in children who reported being tormented by bullies.Even at the ages of 1 9 and 2 1,children who had once been bullied had CRP levels about 1.4 times higher than peers who were neither perpetrators nor victims.In a cruel twist,the bullies had the lowest levels of all.suggesting they didn’t suffer the same health risks. They may even see a benefit from their behavior,though Copeland stresses it doesn’t vindicate(辩护)their actions.“The goal would instead be to find other ways to produce this protective effect without it being at someone else’s expense,”he says.
    Andrea Danese at King’s College London has previously shown that maltreatment during childhood can lead to higll levels of inflammation in adult life.“This new study is a helpful addition in showing that these effects extend to another important childhood stressor,”he says.He suggests that care workers could monitor levels of CRP in children having psychotherapy to see if it is helping to soothe the stress of being bullied.

What do you know about CRP?
A.It is a symbol of the inflammation.
B.It is a symbol of cardiovascular.
C.It relates directly to diabetes.
D.It is a symbol of physiological effects caused by bullying.


简答题
8、Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
逆境(adversity)就是人在生活中遇到的困难和遭受的挫折(setback)。人生在世,每个人都会遇到逆境,它在人们的成长和成熟的过程中起着重要作用。人们看待它的态度决定了它对人们的影响。用积极的态度看待逆境,我们的性格会变得成熟。因此逆境其实是一种挑战和考验,它能使人的潜力发挥到。它能帮人驱走惰性,在与困难进行的搏斗中完善自己,这就是逆境的意义所在!

9、“一年之计在于春,一日之计在于晨”。从这句耳熟能详的俗语中可见早餐对人体健康的重要性。早晨应要有足够的营养摄入(nutr i t i ona |jntake)。以保证有一个良好的工作和生活状态。欧美人非常重视早餐。他们认为早餐若吃得舒服,即表示今天一天会有愉快、满意的时光。有些人甚至利用早餐时间,边吃边谈生意。然而根据营养学家的调查发现。目前还有很多人没有养成吃早餐的习惯或是吃早餐过于随意。


10、You should write an essay entitled The Value of Modesty by the commenting on the remark “Modesty is not an ornament,but also a guard to virtue.”You can give examples to illustrate your point. 写作导航 1、通过格言来诠释谦虚的价值和意义; 2、解释为什么谦虚能够带来成功,并以富兰克林为例证; 3、得出结论,建议大家脑际谦虚,保持虚怀若谷的心态。

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